Interacciones <div id="journalDescription"> <p><strong>Interacciones</strong>&nbsp;is a scientific journal that is based on the double-blind paper review, whose aim is to promote the dissemination of research in <strong>health psychology, clinical psychology and family psychology</strong>. This journal is edited by the&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Instituto Peruano de Orientación Psicológica – IPOPS</a>, always maintaining its editorial independence. This open-access journal publishes papers in English and Spanish.</p> <p>Interacciones respect the criteria established by the indexing systems in terms of editorial characteristics. Those interested in sending manuscripts can download our guide of "<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>PUBLICATION NORMS</strong></a>". The journal has a permanent call for articles; that is, authors can submit articles for consideration throughout the year.</p> <p>The journal is aimed at researchers, professionals and students in behavioral sciences and psychological research, from a broad thematic and theoretical spectrum. Thanks to the sustained increase in the number of manuscripts received, between 2017 and 2020, the journal was published three times a year (January, May, and September). From 2021 onwards, the journal will have a continuous periodicity publishing the articles as soon as they are accepted.</p> </div> <div id="additionalHomeContent"> <p>Interacciones is registered in the following databases, directories, platforms, libraries and networks:<strong> DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals; REDALYC; LATINDEX catálogo; DIALNET; REDIB - Red Iberoamericana de Innovación y Conocimiento Científico; ERIH PLUS European Reference Index for the Humanities and Social Sciences; MIAR - Information Matrix for the Analysis of Journals; Actualidad Iberoamericana; Portal Regional de la Bibliotéca Virtual en Salud BVS-LILACS; Google Scholar; CLASE - Citas Latinoamericanas en Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades; EZ3 - Electronic Journals Library; CROSSREF.</strong></p> </div> Instituto Peruano de Orientación Psicológica en-US Interacciones 2413-4465 <p>The authors retain the copyright and give the journal the right of the first publication and that they can edit it, reproduce it, distribute it, exhibit it and communicate it in the country and abroad through printed and digital media.</p> <p>The digital version of the journal is registered under a Creative Commons license (Under Creative Commons License): Attribution 4.0 International <strong>(CC BY 4.0)</strong>. Therefore, this work can be reproduced, distributed and publicly communicated in digital format, provided that the names of the authors and <strong>Interacciones</strong>.</p> <p>Therefore, it is established that authors can make other independent and additional behavioural agreements for the non-exclusive distribution of the version of the article published in this journal (eg, include it in institutional repositories or publish it in a book) as long as it is clearly indicated that the work was published for the first time in this journal.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> The Bidimensional Model of Mental Health: an empirical approach in a general population sample <p><strong><span lang="EN-US">Background:&nbsp;</span></strong><span lang="EN-US">Comprehensive mental health research is proposed as an important resource for individual well-being, as opposed to indicators of psychopathology.&nbsp;</span><strong><span lang="EN-US">Objectives:&nbsp;</span></strong><span lang="EN-US">We present an approach to the Bidimensional Model of Mental Health (BDSM) that considers psychological distress and subjective well-being as two separate but related dimensions.</span><span lang="EN-US">&nbsp;</span><strong><span lang="EN-US">Methods:</span></strong><span lang="EN-US">&nbsp;In a sample of 290 adults from the community, with 55.2% women and a mean age of 28.6 (Dt = 12.0).&nbsp;</span><strong><span lang="EN-US">Results:&nbsp;</span></strong><span lang="EN-US">The continuous results confirm a two-dimensional structure of psychopathology (PS) and subjective well-being (BS). The proposed model proposes classification into four groups according to the above result, namely, complete mental health (high BS, low PS, 62.2%), vulnerable (low BS, low PS, 11.4%), symptomatic but content (high BS, high PS, 11.4%) and troubled (low BS, high PS, 15%). The categorical results indicate that the problem and symptomatic groups obtained higher mean scores in trait worry, experiential and behavioral avoidance, and in turn, the symptomatic group scored higher in resistance to distress and in the more adaptive cognitive emotional regulation strategies; on the contrary, the vulnerable group obtained lower means in the latter. The results of the vulnerable and symptomatic groups confirm the coexistence of well-being and psychopathology.</span><span lang="EN-US">&nbsp;</span><strong><span lang="EN-US">Conclusions:&nbsp;</span></strong><span lang="EN-US">The promotion of subjective well-being is proposed when considering health in a more comprehensive way, because of its potential to generate profound and lasting benefits for individuals and the community in general.</span></p> Manuel González Mario González Lastenia Hernández Laureano Lorenzo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 e259 e259 10.24016/2023.v9.259 Female Perception of Cohabitation and Marriage in Metropolitan Arequipa <p><strong><span lang="EN-US">Background:</span></strong><span lang="EN-US">&nbsp;During the last decades in Peru there have been greater demographic changes, like the remarkable increase in the number of cohabitating couples and the decrease of married ones. Therefore, this study aims to describe the perception of cohabitation and marriage between women in the city of Arequipa, Peru.&nbsp;<strong>Methods:</strong>&nbsp;764 women between 18 and 66 years of age were randomly selected according to their socioeconomic level and they were surveyed with a questionnaire about cohabitation and marriage perception. The results indicated that the majority of evaluated women considered marriage important (82.5) because it is the most appropriate way to start living as a couple (35.2%) and it is a legally recognized institution (31.3%), among other reasons. Furthermore, the majority of women do not consider cohabitation as more convenient than getting married (65.8%) and mostly reported that cohabitation is a type of relationship in which members mutually support each other (97.5%), that is exclusive between two people (97%) and in which expenses and duties are shared (95.9%).&nbsp;<strong>Conclusion:&nbsp;</strong>For a great percentage of cohabiters and single women from the sample, marriage is important. The majority of women do not consider cohabitation more convenient than getting married. The women that considered cohabitation more convenient, pointed two main reasons: knowing if the couple is getting along and knowing the couple well. Less than the 10% of these women believe that cohabitation is a step prior to marriage. Regarding the perception of marriage compared to cohabitation, for the vast majority of women, the perception of cohabitation is similar to the characteristics of marriage.&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></p> Analucía Torres Flor Lila Cerellino Cernades Renzo Rivera ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-03-16 2023-03-16 e270 e270 10.24016/2023.v9.270 Relationships of emotion regulation to procrastination, life satisfaction and resilience to discomfort <p><strong><span lang="EN-US">Background:&nbsp;</span></strong><span lang="EN-US">Emotion regulation involves the modulation of emotional experiences to facilitate goal attainment. Conversely, emotional difficulties are a pattern of emotional experiences and expressions that interfere with goal-directed behavior.&nbsp;<strong>Objectives:&nbsp;</strong>Our aim was to determine the relationship between emotional regulation difficulties with procrastination, life satisfaction, and resilience to distress.&nbsp;<strong>Methods:&nbsp;</strong>The sample consisted of 366 individuals from the general population, with a mean age of 33 years (SD=15) and 62.1% female.&nbsp;<strong>Results:&nbsp;</strong>Procrastination was positively related to the six emotional distress regulation strategies and negative affect (NA), and negatively related to positive affect (PA). Life satisfaction and distress endurance are negatively related to the identified regulation strategies and NA, and positively related to PA. Procrastination, once NA and PA are controlled is predicted by lack of clarity and lack of goals. Satisfaction with life and resistance to distress are predicted by less lack of strategies.&nbsp;<strong>Conclusions:</strong>&nbsp;It is concluded that of the sociodemographic variables only age is relevant to procrastination, given that people younger than 21 years score higher on this construct. Procrastination is positively related to the six&nbsp;</span>dimensions<span lang="EN-US">&nbsp;of difficulties in emotion regulation, where it is predicted by lack of goals and lack of clarity, however, satisfaction with life and resistance to discomfort by less lack of strategies.</span></p> Manuel González Anna Rovella Andrea Barrera Mario González ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 e278 e278 10.24016/2023.v9.278 Suicide risk model based on the interpersonal theory of suicide: evidence in three regions of Mexico <p><strong><span lang="EN-US">Background:&nbsp;</span></strong><span lang="EN-US">Reports of suicidal behavior have increased in Mexico for years. In order to develop a more adequate suicide prevention strategy, it is necessary to understand its predictive factors, so the purpose of this research was to propose a model of suicidal risk in young people, taking into account one of the most current theories on the subject, Joiner's interpersonal theory.&nbsp;</span><strong><span lang="EN-US">Method:&nbsp;</span></strong><span lang="EN-US">A non-probabilistic sample of young people with suicidal ideation from three regions of Mexico was obtained by online survey (N=411), with mean age of 17.89 years (SD. 1.2), 336 women (81.8%), and 75 men (18.2%).&nbsp;</span><strong><span lang="EN-US">Results:&nbsp;</span></strong><span lang="EN-US">First, a multiple linear regression model was created to predict suicidal risk based on thwarted belongingness and perceived burden with 17% explained variance; then a second model was generated with the same variables and including other factors associated with suicide such as self-injury desires, impulsivity and suicide attempts, in addition to variables associated with family conflicts, improving the explained variance to 34%. Lastly, two properly adjusted structural equation models were obtained, one focused on suicidal risk (R<sup>2</sup>=.21; RMSEA=.026; CFI=.99) and the other on ideation (R<sup>2</sup>=.18; RMSEA=.070; CFI=.98).&nbsp;</span><strong><span lang="EN-US">Conclusions:&nbsp;</span></strong><span lang="EN-US">The main factors that explain suicidal risk are depressive symptoms, perceived burden and desires for self-injury. Further research on the effect of painful experiences as factors that could predict suicide attempt is suggested.</span></p> Modesto Solis-Espinoza Juan Manuel Mancilla Díaz Rosalía Vázquez Arévalo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-02-23 2023-02-23 e284 e284 10.24016/2023.v9.284 Validation Psychometrical analysis of Sexual Machism Scale (EMS-Sexism-12) among university students from Arequipa, Peru <p><strong><span lang="EN-US">Background:&nbsp;</span></strong><span lang="EN-US">Sexual masochism is a form of gender discrimination based on beliefs, stereotypes and attitudes that limit autonomy and devalue individuals based on their gender.<strong>&nbsp;Objective:&nbsp;</strong>To determine the internal structure validity and reliability of the EMS-Sexism-12 to measure sexual machismo in the Peruvian population.<strong>&nbsp;Method:&nbsp;</strong>The study used an instrumental design with a convenience sample of 2470 students from a public university in Arequipa, Peru. The sample consisted of 50% men (M = 20.53; SD = 2.64) and 50% women (M = 19.95; SD = 2.27), representing engineering and social science disciplines. The instrument used was the Sexual Machismo Scale (EMS-Sexism-12), originally constructed and validated in Mexico.<strong>&nbsp;Results:&nbsp;</strong>The data were&nbsp;<span class="SpellE">analysed</span>&nbsp;using CFA and the WLSMV estimator along with polychoric correlation matrices in the open-source software&nbsp;<span class="SpellE">Rstudio</span>. The analysis revealed a unidimensional model with good fit indices for both men (CFI = .924, TLI = .907, SMRM = 0.069) and women (CFI = .936, TLI = .922, SMRM = 0.051). Furthermore, evidence of internal consistency reliability was observed for men and women, respectively (ω = .969; ω = .897). Gender-specific norms are included for reference.<strong>&nbsp;Conclusions:&nbsp;</strong>The sexual machismo scale shows evidence of similar validity and reliability with the same items in men and women from Arequipa, Peru.</span></p> Julio Cesar Huamani-Cahua Estefany Cecilia Ojeda-Flores Walter L Arias-Gallegos Ferdinand Eddington Ceballos Bejarano José Manuel Calizaya López ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-09-10 2023-09-10 e301 e301 10.24016/2023.v9.301 Design of a regression model to predict the presence of depression during pregnancy based on emotional intelligence, parental care, anxiety and stress <p><strong><span lang="EN-US">Background:&nbsp;</span></strong><span lang="EN-US">Emotion regulation involves the modulation of emotional experiences to facilitate goal attainment. Conversely, emotional difficulties are a pattern of emotional experiences and expressions that interfere with goal-directed behavior.&nbsp;<strong>Objectives:&nbsp;</strong>Design a new model to predict the presence of depression in women during pregnancy.&nbsp;<strong>Methods:</strong>&nbsp;Non-experimental, cross-sectional, explanatory study of depression in women during pregnancy (logistic regression) considering the variables emotional intelligence, parental care, anxiety and stress. The sample consisted of 273 pregnant women-mothers between 14 and 38 weeks pregnant, aged between 18 and 38 years, for a mean of 25.67 years (SD= 5.8).&nbsp;<strong>Results:&nbsp;</strong>The regression model is valid and significant in predicting the probability of occurrence of depression, explaining 82.4% of the variance of DV (Presence of depression) by the variables age, clarity and repair of depression dimensions. emotional intelligence, the maternal and paternal overprotection dimensions, and paternal care of the parental style variables; stress, work and single marital status. There is a 95.2% probability of success in the depression result when each of the model variables is incorporated.&nbsp;<strong>Conclusions:&nbsp;</strong>The best predictors of depression in pregnancy would be, on the one hand, higher levels or values of the variables and indicators age, reparation, maternal overprotection, paternal care, and stress, and on the other hand, low scores in the dimensions and values of clarity variables, and paternal overprotection; added to whether the woman works and is single. This combination of variables would be the individual and contextual conditions that influence said appearance</span><span lang="EN-US">.</span></p> Sandro Giovanazzi Aquiles Pérez ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-06-04 2023-06-04 e305 e305 10.24016/2023.v9.305 Psychometric properties of the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) in Mexican adults <p><strong><span lang="EN-US">Background:&nbsp;</span></strong><span lang="EN-US">Insomnia is the sleep disorder with the highest incidence worldwide. It is estimated that this condition increases the risk of developing psychiatric, neurological, and cardiovascular problems. Due to this, it is important to have brief, reliable and valid psychometric instruments that allow health personnel their timely detection in first level health centers.</span><strong><span lang="EN-US">&nbsp;Objectives:&nbsp;</span></strong><span lang="EN-US">Analyze the psychometric properties of the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) in its version adapted to Spanish in a sample of Mexican adults.&nbsp;</span><strong><span lang="EN-US">Methods:</span></strong><span lang="EN-US">&nbsp;The sample consisted of 310 adults,</span><span lang="EN-US">&nbsp;</span><span lang="EN-US">223 (71.9%) women and 87 (28.1%) men. The comparison of four ISI measurement models of one, two and three factors and a bifactor model was carried out, its internal consistency was analyzed, an analysis of invariance by sex and correlation analysis with the Athens and Epworth scales.&nbsp;</span><strong><span lang="EN-US">Results:&nbsp;</span></strong><span lang="EN-US">The ISI bifactor model with a general factor (G) and a specific factor for insomnia impact (I) showed the best fit indices (<em>χ2</em>= 29.48,&nbsp;<span class="SpellE"><em>gl</em></span>&nbsp;= 11, SRMR= 0.03, CFI= 0.98, TLI= 0.96, RMSEA= 0.07), and demonstrated configural, metric, and scalar invariance by sex. Adequate reliability was demonstrated by Omega coefficients&nbsp;</span><span lang="EN-US">(General:&nbsp;<span class="SpellE">ω<em><sub>G</sub></em></span>= 0.86, Impact:&nbsp;<span class="SpellE">ω<em><sub>I</sub></em></span>= 0.86) showed adequate reliability; the scale showed very strong correlations with the Athens scale (<span class="SpellE">r<sub>AGoverall</sub></span>= 0.84;&nbsp;<span class="SpellE">r<sub>AImpact</sub></span>=0.75) and weak to moderate correlations with the Epworth scale (<span class="SpellE"><em>r<sub>EGeneral</sub></em></span>= 0.39;&nbsp;<span class="SpellE"><em>r<sub>EImpact</sub></em></span><sub>=</sub>0.44).</span><span lang="EN-US">&nbsp;</span><strong><span lang="EN-US">Conclusions:&nbsp;</span></strong><span lang="EN-US">The ISI bifactor version in Spanish presents adequate psychometric properties for the measurement of insomnia and, as it is a brief tool, it can be used at different levels of health care.</span></p> Horacio Balam Álvarez García Isaías Vicente Lugo-González Fabiola González Betanzos ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-05-19 2023-05-19 e311 e311 10.24016/2023.v9.311 Validation Spanish of the Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Scale in the Postpartum - City BITS <p><strong>Background: </strong>Postpartum post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has a prevalence of 3-4% in women, rising to 15-19% in the presence of risks during pregnancy or childbirth, and reaching 39% in the case of neonatal death. Perinatal complications can trigger a real or perceived threat to maternal or neonatal life, which can evoke intense emotional reactions equivalent to a traumatic stressor according to PTSD criteria. Four symptom clusters have been identified: re-experiencing, avoidance, negative cognitions and mood, and hyperarousal symptoms. Despite its high comorbidity with depression and anxiety, postpartum PTSD remains underdiagnosed in maternal settings. The Postpartum Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Scale, originally developed in England, is in the process of translation and global validation.<strong> Objective: </strong>To validate the Spanish adaptation of the City Birth Trauma Scale.<strong> Methods: </strong>Quantitative, nonexperimental, cross-sectional, descriptive-correlational study in a sample of 677 Argentine women with children under 12 months of age.<strong> Results: </strong>Exploratory factor analysis revealed two dimensions that explained 49.56% of the total variance. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the two-factor structure. The scale showed high internal consistency (total α = .903), with α = .872 for 'birth-related symptoms' and α = .886 for 'general symptoms'. Construct validity of the City BiTS was demonstrated by moderate associations with the DASS-21 subscales and a negative correlation with the BIEPS-A. <strong>Conclusions: </strong>The Spanish adaptation of the City Birth Trauma Scale is confirmed as a reliable and valid instrument, consistent with original research findings and subsequent validations, articulating postpartum PTSD in two symptom categories: birth-related and general.</p> Ayelén Acosta Aquiles Pérez Delgado Mercedes Lotufo Angela Zayas Sandro Giovanazzi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-09-20 2023-09-20 e316 e316 10.24016/2023.v9.316 Perception of danger, coping strategies, and mental health in university population <p><strong>Objective:</strong> This study aimed to relate life satisfaction and psychological distress to coping with the perception of criminal danger in university students. <strong>Method:</strong> Three scales were used: The Life Satisfaction Scale, the K-10 Psychological Distress Scale, and the Coping with Perceived Danger Scale. A total of 370 university students participated, of whom 65.4% were female, and 13.8% had experienced crime in the previous two years. <strong>Result:</strong> A positive and statistically significant relationship was found between coping with perceived danger, such as cautious avoidance (r=0.274, p ≤ 0.00), preventive coping (r=0.344, p ≤ 0.00), and extreme avoidance (r=0.207, p ≤0.00), with psychological distress. These relationships were even stronger for victims of crime. Women show higher levels of psychological distress and more cautious, avoidant and extreme coping strategies in the face of danger compared to men. Finally, a negative and significant relationship was observed between psychological distress and life satisfaction. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: It appears that regardless of whether a person has been a victim of crime in the last two years, perceptions of danger and strategies of cautious and even extreme crime prevention are related.</p> Nicol Altamirano Pablo Melo-Moreno Felipe García ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-09-16 2023-09-16 e326 e326 10.24016/2023.v9.326 Psychometric properties of the Stress Coping Scale Brief-COPE 28 in a Peruvian population <p><strong>Background: </strong>The highly stressful events we are currently experiencing require great cognitive and emotional effort and affect the mental health of the population. In this sense, coping with stress provides evidence of how people use their resources to cope with or avoid stressful events, which requires validated and reliable instruments to measure accurately. <strong>Objective: </strong>To determine the psychometric properties of reliability and validity of the BRIEF COPE 28, Spanish version.<strong> Method: </strong>The design used was instrumental; 530 people participated, 60% men and 40% women, between 18 and 60 years old, from different regions of Peru, selected by non-probability convenience sampling. <strong>Results: </strong>It is evident that the alpha coefficient of coping styles ranges from α ordinal = 0.74 to 0.82; while in strategies it was between α ordinal = 0.59 to 0.90. In terms of internal structure, the four-factor model obtained a good fit SB-χ²/gl=1.836; CFI=0.92; TLI=0.90, SRMS=0.09 and RMSEA=0.10. A good fit was found with the ten coping strategies model SB-χ²/gl=1.902; CFI=0.96; TLI=0.95, SRMS=0.056, RMSEA=0.069. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> COPE 28 has good internal consistency; and the model with the four coping styles is inconclusive, while the model with ten strategies has adequate goodness of fit.</p> Neicer Joel Delgado-Requejo Julio Cesar Castillo Ramos Lourdes Carolina Cerda Sánchez ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-09-30 2023-09-30 e333 e333 10.24016/2023.v9.333 Smartphone addiction and life satisfaction: mediating effect of negative emotions <p><strong><span lang="EN-US">Background:</span></strong><span lang="EN-US">&nbsp;Smartphone users have increased worldwide, due to their multifunctionality and accessibility.&nbsp;<strong>Objective:</strong>&nbsp;To determine the mediating effect of negative emotions between life satisfaction and smartphone addiction in college students.&nbsp;<strong>Method:</strong>&nbsp;A structural equation explanatory model was proposed in which each negative emotion (depression, anxiety, and stress) has a mediating role between life satisfaction and cell phone addiction. To this end, 1109 university students from Metropolitan Lima were selected and administered the DASS 21, SABAS, SWLS.&nbsp;<strong>Result</strong>: A partial effect of each mediating model was found, in addition to Satisfaction with life achieved a direct effect on cell phone addiction; at the same time the mediating variables achieved a significant direct effect on addictive behavior.&nbsp;<strong>Conclusion</strong>: Negative emotions have a mediating role in explaining smartphone addiction.</span></p> Miguel Angel Vallejos-Flores Karim Talledo-Sánchez David Carlos-Ventura Jessica J Sullcahuaman Amésquita Aaron Caycho-Caja Abigail Vigo-Carbajal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-11-14 2023-11-14 e357 e357 10.24016/2023.v9.357 Psychometric properties of the Mexican version of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale: The IUS-12M <p><strong>Background: </strong>The Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale short version (IUS-12) has proven to be a robust self-report measure to assess intolerance of uncertainty. While previous psychometric analyses of the IUS-12 have established a stable two-factor structure corresponding to the prospective and inhibitory factors of intolerance of uncertainty, recent studies suggest that the bifactor model may better explain its factor structure. <strong>Objective:</strong>&nbsp;The current study aimed to adapt and validate the IUS-12 in a Mexican population culturally. <strong>Method:</strong> The study consisted of a convenience non-probabilistic community sample of 405 adults between 18 and 70 years. <strong>Results: </strong>Confirmatory factor analyses supported a bifactor model and good internal consistency. Invariance testing indicated partial invariance across women and men. Convergent validity tests showed that the IUS-12 was related to measures of worry, as well as depression and anxiety. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> These findings provide evidence for the reliability and validity of the adapted version of the IUS-12 in Mexico.</p> Alejandrina Hernández-Posadas Anabel De la Rosa-Gómez Miriam J. J. Lommen Theo K. Bouman Juan M. Mancilla-Díaz Adriana Del Palacio González ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-12-29 2023-12-29 e358 e358 10.24016/2023.v9.358 Dissociative Experiences Scale: Psychometric Analysis in Puerto Rico and Contributions to the Discussion of the Factor Structure <p><strong><span lang="EN-GB">Introduction:</span></strong><span lang="EN-GB">&nbsp;The Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES-II) is a widely used psychometric tool to assess dissociative symptoms. Over the years, it has been the subject of numerous studies and research in various fields of psychology and psychiatry. Numerous studies have supported the validity and reliability of the DES-II as a reliable measure of dissociative experiences. The most problematic aspect of the DES-II is the inconsistency in its factor structure.</span><span lang="EN-GB">&nbsp;</span><strong><span lang="EN-GB">Objective:</span></strong><span lang="EN-GB">&nbsp;This research aimed to examine the psychometric properties of the DES-II in a clinical and non-clinical sample from Puerto Rico.</span><span lang="EN-GB">&nbsp;</span><strong><span lang="EN-GB">Method:</span></strong><span lang="EN-GB">&nbsp;This research had an instrumental design. An availability sampling of 341 adult participants was used. Several competing models of the DES-II were&nbsp;<span class="SpellE">analyzed</span>, including a bifactor model.</span><span lang="EN-GB">&nbsp;</span><strong><span lang="EN-GB">Result</span></strong><span lang="EN-GB">: Psychometric analyses concluded that the scale has a unidimensional structure, strong reliability, and construct validity. All 28 items met adequate discrimination values. Participants with dissociative disorders obtained higher means on the DES-II than the other diagnostic groups. Furthermore, the more adverse experiences in childhood, the more dissociative experiences in adulthood.&nbsp;<strong>Conclusion</strong>: The DES-II should be treated and interpreted as a unidimensional dissociation index rather than a multidimensional instrument. This study will advance further research on dissociation and dissociative disorders in Puerto Rico and Latin America.</span></p> Juan González-Rivera ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-11-04 2023-11-04 e360 e360 10.24016/2023.v9.260 Validation of the Cognitive Fusion Scale in Cuban adults with anxiety symptoms <p><strong><span lang="EN-US">Background:</span></strong><span lang="EN-US">&nbsp;Cognitive Fusion (CF) is a psychological problem that is a fundamental concept within Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. The Cognitive Fusion Scale (CFS), which is used to measure this concept, has not been adapted or validated in Cuba.&nbsp;<strong>Objective:</strong>&nbsp;To evaluate the psychometric properties of the CFA in adults with anxiety symptoms.&nbsp;<strong>Method:</strong>&nbsp;Qualitative and quantitative techniques were combined: Expert interview, correlation and concordance coefficients and factor analysis.&nbsp;&nbsp;<strong>Result</strong>: The CFQ was adapted from a linguistic and cultural perspective. Nine experts were consulted and consensus was assessed using the content validity coefficient of appropriateness (0.97). During piloting with 35 people, the test achieved a Cronbach's α coefficient (0.927). When the adapted test was applied to 106 adults with anxiety symptoms, a Cronbach's α coefficient (0.869) was achieved, demonstrating the homogeneity of the test. The exploratory factor analysis (KMO = 0.820, X2 (338) = 21, p &lt; 0.001) showed item ambiguities of less than 0.6 and factor loadings of more than 0.3. The confirmatory factor analysis showed a good model fit (X2 (14) = 45.1, p &lt; 0.001). A low and statistically significant correlation (Rho = 0.216, p &lt; 0.05) was found in relation to IDARE (state).&nbsp;&nbsp;<strong>Conclusion</strong>: The adapted CFQ was valid in terms of content, showed high reliability values and its one-dimensionality was verified. The adapted instrument shows a correlation between FC and anxiety symptoms. An instrument like this could improve the diagnosis of CF, as well as increase the quality of care for the patient.</span></p> Pedro García Rojas Damian Valdés Santiago ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-12-29 2023-12-29 e361 e361 10.24016/2023.v9.361 Development and psychometric properties of the Attitudes Towards Intellectual Disability Scale in the workplace <p><strong><span lang="EN-US">Background:</span></strong><span lang="EN-US">&nbsp;A new instrument was designed to measure attitudes towards intellectual disability in the workplace. This tool provides the opportunity to identify underlying cognitive and emotional patterns that may influence people's interaction and performance in such environments.</span><span lang="EN-US">&nbsp;</span><strong><span lang="EN-US">Objective:</span></strong><span lang="EN-US">&nbsp;To construct, validate, and ensure the reliability of a scale measuring attitudes towards intellectual disability, establishing its suitability in labor inclusion programs.&nbsp;<strong>Method:</strong>&nbsp;A psychometric design was used that incorporated qualitative techniques, such as focus groups and cognitive interviews, in the instrument construction phase. The content validation of the items involved the participation of 15 experts in the field, which resulted in a reduced version with 10 items distributed in two dimensions: Perception and Social Distance. Subsequently, both the validity of the internal structure and the reliability of the instrument were evaluated in a sample of 255 individuals, composed of 35% (n=88) women and 66% (n=167) men.&nbsp;<strong>Result</strong>: The third-factor model evaluated with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was the one that demonstrated excellent fit indices (CFI= .991; TLI=.988; RMSEA= .076; SRMR =.038), with an adequate inter-factor correlation (0.82) and adequate consistency coefficients (α=0.825; ω=0.916).&nbsp;<strong>Conclusion</strong>: A tool of invaluable value is presented for planning public health programs aimed at reducing stigma and promoting the socio-labor inclusion of people with intellectual disabilities.</span></p> Alicia Boluarte Carbajal Martin Salazar-Conde Arantxa N Sánchez Boluarte Danilo Sánchez Coronel Brian Norman Peña-Calero ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-12-20 2023-12-20 e366 e366 10.24016/2023.v9.366 Brief review of pathophysiological disorders as consequence of psychological stress <p><strong><span lang="EN-GB">Background:&nbsp;</span></strong><span lang="EN-GB">Psychological stress is a reaction to an unexpected situation that favours adaptation and response to the event. However, when psychological stress is chronic or very intense, it can induce changes in various systems and tissues, causing diseases or aggravating existing ones.&nbsp;<strong>Objective:&nbsp;</strong>To briefly analyse the pathophysiological conditions caused by psychological stress.&nbsp;<strong>Method:&nbsp;</strong>A narrative review of the scientific literature on pathophysiological conditions as a consequence of psychological stress was performed.&nbsp;<strong>Results:&nbsp;</strong>Psychological stress can induce various conditions at the gastrointestinal, immune and cardiovascular levels. This is mainly due to the neurobiological and endocrine response because when faced with a stressful stimulus, a deregulated release of glucocorticoids and catecholamines is generated, altering the normal physiology of the organism. Gastrointestinal disorders are mainly due to goblet cell dysfunction, resulting in intestinal hyperpermeability, inflammation and infection. Changes at the immune level&nbsp;<span class="GramE">lead</span>&nbsp;to an increase in inflammatory responses but a decrease in the protective activities of the immune system. Finally, cardiovascular conditions include atherosclerosis, increased blood pressure and stroke.&nbsp;<strong>Conclusion:&nbsp;</strong>Psychological stress can induce real physiological pathologies and, in some cases, fatal ones. Some of the molecular mechanisms involved in these pathologies have already been studied and identified. Knowledge of these molecular mechanisms can help clinicians and therapists to improve the treatment and therapy of patients.</span></p> Francisco López-Naranjo Rebeca Córdova-Moreno Ivo Heyerdahl-Viau ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-09-25 2023-09-25 e327 e327 10.24016/2023.v9.327 Effects of perceived social support on maternal stress and breastfeeding: A narrative review <p><strong><span lang="EN-US">Background:&nbsp;</span></strong><span lang="EN-US">Health authorities recommend exclusive breastfeeding until six months of age and continued breastfeeding (BF) until two years.<strong>&nbsp;Objective:&nbsp;</strong>To conduct a narrative review of the effects of social support on maternal distress and BF.<strong>&nbsp;Method:&nbsp;</strong>A narrative and non-systematic review was conducted, selecting articles from the literature in PubMed,&nbsp;<span class="SpellE">Redalyc</span>, BVS, and from websites of&nbsp;<span class="SpellE">organisations</span>&nbsp;such as WHO and UNICEF.<strong>&nbsp;Results:&nbsp;</strong>The results show that low social support is associated with increased maternal stress and affects the initiation and maintenance of breastfeeding. Social support acts to reduce stress levels.&nbsp;<strong>Conclusion:&nbsp;</strong>Social support is a factor to be considered as a strategy to reduce maternal stress and promote BF. It is necessary to&nbsp;<span class="SpellE">emphasise</span>&nbsp;the role of healthcare teams in promoting BF, especially among single-parent mothers, by providing social support and breastfeeding education.</span></p> Valeria Paola Sosa Paez Giselle Kamenetzky Anna Rovella ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 e334 e334 10.24016/2023.v9.334 Clinical behavior: are the dispositional categories serving to help maintain healthcare and psychotherapeutic adherence? <p>The formulation of coherent psychological models to address problems related to health care, especially with regard to the lack of adherence to health and psychotherapeutic treatment, is hampered, as far as the behavioral clinic is concerned, by the rejection on the part of radically environmentalist behavioral variants of the theoretical and evaluative use of dispositional categories—personality traits and health beliefs in the context of this article. It is suggested that such use is beneficial and not inconsistent with the premises of a behavioral approach, so the aforementioned constructs are interpreted in terms of learning theory and it is shown how this reformulation, embodied in Staats' theory, can Contribute to the construction of alternatives that facilitate the examination, prediction and modification of the client's attitudes in the biopsychosocial framework of their health habits.</p> William Montgomery ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 e335 e335 10.24016/2023.v9.335