Interacciones <div id="journalDescription"> <p><strong>Interacciones</strong>&nbsp;is a scientific journal that is based on the double-blind paper review, whose aim is to promote the dissemination of research in <strong>health psychology, clinical psychology and family psychology</strong>. This journal is edited by the&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Instituto Peruano de Orientación Psicológica – IPOPS</a>, always maintaining its editorial independence. This open-access journal publishes papers in English and Spanish.</p> <p>Interacciones respect the criteria established by the indexing systems in terms of editorial characteristics. Those interested in sending manuscripts can download our guide of "<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>PUBLICATION NORMS</strong></a>". The journal has a permanent call for articles; that is, authors can submit articles for consideration throughout the year.</p> <p>The journal is aimed at researchers, professionals and students in behavioral sciences and psychological research, from a broad thematic and theoretical spectrum. Thanks to the sustained increase in the number of manuscripts received, between 2017 and 2020, the journal was published three times a year (January, May, and September). From 2021 onwards, the journal will have a continuous periodicity publishing the articles as soon as they are accepted.</p> </div> <div id="additionalHomeContent"> <p>Interacciones is registered in the following databases, directories, platforms, libraries and networks:<strong> DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals; REDALYC; LATINDEX catálogo; DIALNET; REDIB - Red Iberoamericana de Innovación y Conocimiento Científico; ERIH PLUS European Reference Index for the Humanities and Social Sciences; MIAR - Information Matrix for the Analysis of Journals; Actualidad Iberoamericana; Portal Regional de la Bibliotéca Virtual en Salud BVS-LILACS; Google Scholar; CLASE - Citas Latinoamericanas en Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades; EZ3 - Electronic Journals Library; CROSSREF.</strong></p> </div> Instituto Peruano de Orientación Psicológica en-US Interacciones 2413-4465 <p>The authors retain the copyright and give the journal the right of the first publication and that they can edit it, reproduce it, distribute it, exhibit it and communicate it in the country and abroad through printed and digital media.</p> <p>The digital version of the journal is registered under a Creative Commons license (Under Creative Commons License): Attribution 4.0 International <strong>(CC BY 4.0)</strong>. Therefore, this work can be reproduced, distributed and publicly communicated in digital format, provided that the names of the authors and <strong>Interacciones</strong>.</p> <p>Therefore, it is established that authors can make other independent and additional behavioural agreements for the non-exclusive distribution of the version of the article published in this journal (eg, include it in institutional repositories or publish it in a book) as long as it is clearly indicated that the work was published for the first time in this journal.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> The Bidimensional Model of Mental Health: an empirical approach in a general population sample <p><strong><span lang="EN-US">Background:&nbsp;</span></strong><span lang="EN-US">Comprehensive mental health research is proposed as an important resource for individual well-being, as opposed to indicators of psychopathology.&nbsp;</span><strong><span lang="EN-US">Objectives:&nbsp;</span></strong><span lang="EN-US">We present an approach to the Bidimensional Model of Mental Health (BDSM) that considers psychological distress and subjective well-being as two separate but related dimensions.</span><span lang="EN-US">&nbsp;</span><strong><span lang="EN-US">Methods:</span></strong><span lang="EN-US">&nbsp;In a sample of 290 adults from the community, with 55.2% women and a mean age of 28.6 (Dt = 12.0).&nbsp;</span><strong><span lang="EN-US">Results:&nbsp;</span></strong><span lang="EN-US">The continuous results confirm a two-dimensional structure of psychopathology (PS) and subjective well-being (BS). The proposed model proposes classification into four groups according to the above result, namely, complete mental health (high BS, low PS, 62.2%), vulnerable (low BS, low PS, 11.4%), symptomatic but content (high BS, high PS, 11.4%) and troubled (low BS, high PS, 15%). The categorical results indicate that the problem and symptomatic groups obtained higher mean scores in trait worry, experiential and behavioral avoidance, and in turn, the symptomatic group scored higher in resistance to distress and in the more adaptive cognitive emotional regulation strategies; on the contrary, the vulnerable group obtained lower means in the latter. The results of the vulnerable and symptomatic groups confirm the coexistence of well-being and psychopathology.</span><span lang="EN-US">&nbsp;</span><strong><span lang="EN-US">Conclusions:&nbsp;</span></strong><span lang="EN-US">The promotion of subjective well-being is proposed when considering health in a more comprehensive way, because of its potential to generate profound and lasting benefits for individuals and the community in general.</span></p> Manuel González Mario González Lastenia Hernández Laureano Lorenzo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-03-23 2023-03-23 e259 e259 10.24016/2023.v9.259 Female Perception of Cohabitation and Marriage in Metropolitan Arequipa <p><strong><span lang="EN-US">Background:</span></strong><span lang="EN-US">&nbsp;During the last decades in Peru there have been greater demographic changes, like the remarkable increase in the number of cohabitating couples and the decrease of married ones. Therefore, this study aims to describe the perception of cohabitation and marriage between women in the city of Arequipa, Peru.&nbsp;<strong>Methods:</strong>&nbsp;764 women between 18 and 66 years of age were randomly selected according to their socioeconomic level and they were surveyed with a questionnaire about cohabitation and marriage perception. The results indicated that the majority of evaluated women considered marriage important (82.5) because it is the most appropriate way to start living as a couple (35.2%) and it is a legally recognized institution (31.3%), among other reasons. Furthermore, the majority of women do not consider cohabitation as more convenient than getting married (65.8%) and mostly reported that cohabitation is a type of relationship in which members mutually support each other (97.5%), that is exclusive between two people (97%) and in which expenses and duties are shared (95.9%).&nbsp;<strong>Conclusion:&nbsp;</strong>For a great percentage of cohabiters and single women from the sample, marriage is important. The majority of women do not consider cohabitation more convenient than getting married. The women that considered cohabitation more convenient, pointed two main reasons: knowing if the couple is getting along and knowing the couple well. Less than the 10% of these women believe that cohabitation is a step prior to marriage. Regarding the perception of marriage compared to cohabitation, for the vast majority of women, the perception of cohabitation is similar to the characteristics of marriage.&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></p> Analucía Torres Flor Lila Cerellino Cernades Renzo Rivera ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-03-16 2023-03-16 e270 e270 10.24016/2023.v9.270 Relationships of emotion regulation to procrastination, life satisfaction and resilience to discomfort <p><strong><span lang="EN-US">Background:&nbsp;</span></strong><span lang="EN-US">Emotion regulation involves the modulation of emotional experiences to facilitate goal attainment. Conversely, emotional difficulties are a pattern of emotional experiences and expressions that interfere with goal-directed behavior.&nbsp;<strong>Objectives:&nbsp;</strong>Our aim was to determine the relationship between emotional regulation difficulties with procrastination, life satisfaction, and resilience to distress.&nbsp;<strong>Methods:&nbsp;</strong>The sample consisted of 366 individuals from the general population, with a mean age of 33 years (SD=15) and 62.1% female.&nbsp;<strong>Results:&nbsp;</strong>Procrastination was positively related to the six emotional distress regulation strategies and negative affect (NA), and negatively related to positive affect (PA). Life satisfaction and distress endurance are negatively related to the identified regulation strategies and NA, and positively related to PA. Procrastination, once NA and PA are controlled is predicted by lack of clarity and lack of goals. Satisfaction with life and resistance to distress are predicted by less lack of strategies.&nbsp;<strong>Conclusions:</strong>&nbsp;It is concluded that of the sociodemographic variables only age is relevant to procrastination, given that people younger than 21 years score higher on this construct. Procrastination is positively related to the six&nbsp;</span>dimensions<span lang="EN-US">&nbsp;of difficulties in emotion regulation, where it is predicted by lack of goals and lack of clarity, however, satisfaction with life and resistance to discomfort by less lack of strategies.</span></p> Manuel González Anna Rovella Andrea Barrera Mario González ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-02-28 2023-02-28 e278 e278 10.24016/2023.v9.278 Suicide risk model based on the interpersonal theory of suicide: evidence in three regions of Mexico <p><strong><span lang="EN-US">Background:&nbsp;</span></strong><span lang="EN-US">Reports of suicidal behavior have increased in Mexico for years. In order to develop a more adequate suicide prevention strategy, it is necessary to understand its predictive factors, so the purpose of this research was to propose a model of suicidal risk in young people, taking into account one of the most current theories on the subject, Joiner's interpersonal theory.&nbsp;</span><strong><span lang="EN-US">Method:&nbsp;</span></strong><span lang="EN-US">A non-probabilistic sample of young people with suicidal ideation from three regions of Mexico was obtained by online survey (N=411), with mean age of 17.89 years (SD. 1.2), 336 women (81.8%), and 75 men (18.2%).&nbsp;</span><strong><span lang="EN-US">Results:&nbsp;</span></strong><span lang="EN-US">First, a multiple linear regression model was created to predict suicidal risk based on thwarted belongingness and perceived burden with 17% explained variance; then a second model was generated with the same variables and including other factors associated with suicide such as self-injury desires, impulsivity and suicide attempts, in addition to variables associated with family conflicts, improving the explained variance to 34%. Lastly, two properly adjusted structural equation models were obtained, one focused on suicidal risk (R<sup>2</sup>=.21; RMSEA=.026; CFI=.99) and the other on ideation (R<sup>2</sup>=.18; RMSEA=.070; CFI=.98).&nbsp;</span><strong><span lang="EN-US">Conclusions:&nbsp;</span></strong><span lang="EN-US">The main factors that explain suicidal risk are depressive symptoms, perceived burden and desires for self-injury. Further research on the effect of painful experiences as factors that could predict suicide attempt is suggested.</span></p> Modesto Solis-Espinoza Juan Manuel Mancilla Díaz Rosalía Vázquez Arévalo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-02-23 2023-02-23 e284 e284 10.24016/2023.v9.284 Validation Psychometrical analysis of Sexual Machism Scale (EMS-Sexism-12) among university students from Arequipa, Peru <p><strong><span lang="EN-US">Background:&nbsp;</span></strong><span lang="EN-US">Sexual masochism is a form of gender discrimination based on beliefs, stereotypes and attitudes that limit autonomy and devalue individuals based on their gender.<strong>&nbsp;Objective:&nbsp;</strong>To determine the internal structure validity and reliability of the EMS-Sexism-12 to measure sexual machismo in the Peruvian population.<strong>&nbsp;Method:&nbsp;</strong>The study used an instrumental design with a convenience sample of 2470 students from a public university in Arequipa, Peru. The sample consisted of 50% men (M = 20.53; SD = 2.64) and 50% women (M = 19.95; SD = 2.27), representing engineering and social science disciplines. The instrument used was the Sexual Machismo Scale (EMS-Sexism-12), originally constructed and validated in Mexico.<strong>&nbsp;Results:&nbsp;</strong>The data were&nbsp;<span class="SpellE">analysed</span>&nbsp;using CFA and the WLSMV estimator along with polychoric correlation matrices in the open-source software&nbsp;<span class="SpellE">Rstudio</span>. The analysis revealed a unidimensional model with good fit indices for both men (CFI = .924, TLI = .907, SMRM = 0.069) and women (CFI = .936, TLI = .922, SMRM = 0.051). Furthermore, evidence of internal consistency reliability was observed for men and women, respectively (ω = .969; ω = .897). Gender-specific norms are included for reference.<strong>&nbsp;Conclusions:&nbsp;</strong>The sexual machismo scale shows evidence of similar validity and reliability with the same items in men and women from Arequipa, Peru.</span></p> Julio Cesar Huamani-Cahua Estefany Cecilia Ojeda-Flores Walter L Arias-Gallegos Ferdinand Eddington Ceballos Bejarano José Manuel Calizaya López ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-09-10 2023-09-10 e301 e301 10.24016/2023.v9.301 Design of a regression model to predict the presence of depression during pregnancy based on emotional intelligence, parental care, anxiety and stress <p><strong><span lang="EN-US">Background:&nbsp;</span></strong><span lang="EN-US">Emotion regulation involves the modulation of emotional experiences to facilitate goal attainment. Conversely, emotional difficulties are a pattern of emotional experiences and expressions that interfere with goal-directed behavior.&nbsp;<strong>Objectives:&nbsp;</strong>Design a new model to predict the presence of depression in women during pregnancy.&nbsp;<strong>Methods:</strong>&nbsp;Non-experimental, cross-sectional, explanatory study of depression in women during pregnancy (logistic regression) considering the variables emotional intelligence, parental care, anxiety and stress. The sample consisted of 273 pregnant women-mothers between 14 and 38 weeks pregnant, aged between 18 and 38 years, for a mean of 25.67 years (SD= 5.8).&nbsp;<strong>Results:&nbsp;</strong>The regression model is valid and significant in predicting the probability of occurrence of depression, explaining 82.4% of the variance of DV (Presence of depression) by the variables age, clarity and repair of depression dimensions. emotional intelligence, the maternal and paternal overprotection dimensions, and paternal care of the parental style variables; stress, work and single marital status. There is a 95.2% probability of success in the depression result when each of the model variables is incorporated.&nbsp;<strong>Conclusions:&nbsp;</strong>The best predictors of depression in pregnancy would be, on the one hand, higher levels or values of the variables and indicators age, reparation, maternal overprotection, paternal care, and stress, and on the other hand, low scores in the dimensions and values of clarity variables, and paternal overprotection; added to whether the woman works and is single. This combination of variables would be the individual and contextual conditions that influence said appearance</span><span lang="EN-US">.</span></p> Sandro Giovanazzi Aquiles Pérez ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-06-04 2023-06-04 e305 e305 10.24016/2023.v9.305 Psychometric properties of the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) in Mexican adults <p><strong><span lang="EN-US">Background:&nbsp;</span></strong><span lang="EN-US">Insomnia is the sleep disorder with the highest incidence worldwide. It is estimated that this condition increases the risk of developing psychiatric, neurological, and cardiovascular problems. Due to this, it is important to have brief, reliable and valid psychometric instruments that allow health personnel their timely detection in first level health centers.</span><strong><span lang="EN-US">&nbsp;Objectives:&nbsp;</span></strong><span lang="EN-US">Analyze the psychometric properties of the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) in its version adapted to Spanish in a sample of Mexican adults.&nbsp;</span><strong><span lang="EN-US">Methods:</span></strong><span lang="EN-US">&nbsp;The sample consisted of 310 adults,</span><span lang="EN-US">&nbsp;</span><span lang="EN-US">223 (71.9%) women and 87 (28.1%) men. The comparison of four ISI measurement models of one, two and three factors and a bifactor model was carried out, its internal consistency was analyzed, an analysis of invariance by sex and correlation analysis with the Athens and Epworth scales.&nbsp;</span><strong><span lang="EN-US">Results:&nbsp;</span></strong><span lang="EN-US">The ISI bifactor model with a general factor (G) and a specific factor for insomnia impact (I) showed the best fit indices (<em>χ2</em>= 29.48,&nbsp;<span class="SpellE"><em>gl</em></span>&nbsp;= 11, SRMR= 0.03, CFI= 0.98, TLI= 0.96, RMSEA= 0.07), and demonstrated configural, metric, and scalar invariance by sex. Adequate reliability was demonstrated by Omega coefficients&nbsp;</span><span lang="EN-US">(General:&nbsp;<span class="SpellE">ω<em><sub>G</sub></em></span>= 0.86, Impact:&nbsp;<span class="SpellE">ω<em><sub>I</sub></em></span>= 0.86) showed adequate reliability; the scale showed very strong correlations with the Athens scale (<span class="SpellE">r<sub>AGoverall</sub></span>= 0.84;&nbsp;<span class="SpellE">r<sub>AImpact</sub></span>=0.75) and weak to moderate correlations with the Epworth scale (<span class="SpellE"><em>r<sub>EGeneral</sub></em></span>= 0.39;&nbsp;<span class="SpellE"><em>r<sub>EImpact</sub></em></span><sub>=</sub>0.44).</span><span lang="EN-US">&nbsp;</span><strong><span lang="EN-US">Conclusions:&nbsp;</span></strong><span lang="EN-US">The ISI bifactor version in Spanish presents adequate psychometric properties for the measurement of insomnia and, as it is a brief tool, it can be used at different levels of health care.</span></p> Horacio Balam Álvarez García Isaías Vicente Lugo-González Fabiola González Betanzos ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-05-19 2023-05-19 e311 e311 10.24016/2023.v9.311 Validation Spanish of the Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Scale in the Postpartum - City BITS <p><strong>Background: </strong>Postpartum post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has a prevalence of 3-4% in women, rising to 15-19% in the presence of risks during pregnancy or childbirth, and reaching 39% in the case of neonatal death. Perinatal complications can trigger a real or perceived threat to maternal or neonatal life, which can evoke intense emotional reactions equivalent to a traumatic stressor according to PTSD criteria. Four symptom clusters have been identified: re-experiencing, avoidance, negative cognitions and mood, and hyperarousal symptoms. Despite its high comorbidity with depression and anxiety, postpartum PTSD remains underdiagnosed in maternal settings. The Postpartum Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Scale, originally developed in England, is in the process of translation and global validation.<strong> Objective: </strong>To validate the Spanish adaptation of the City Birth Trauma Scale.<strong> Methods: </strong>Quantitative, nonexperimental, cross-sectional, descriptive-correlational study in a sample of 677 Argentine women with children under 12 months of age.<strong> Results: </strong>Exploratory factor analysis revealed two dimensions that explained 49.56% of the total variance. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the two-factor structure. The scale showed high internal consistency (total α = .903), with α = .872 for 'birth-related symptoms' and α = .886 for 'general symptoms'. Construct validity of the City BiTS was demonstrated by moderate associations with the DASS-21 subscales and a negative correlation with the BIEPS-A. <strong>Conclusions: </strong>The Spanish adaptation of the City Birth Trauma Scale is confirmed as a reliable and valid instrument, consistent with original research findings and subsequent validations, articulating postpartum PTSD in two symptom categories: birth-related and general.</p> Ayelén Acosta Aquiles Pérez Delgado Mercedes Lotufo Angela Zayas Sandro Giovanazzi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-09-20 2023-09-20 e316 e316 10.24016/2023.v9.316 Perception of danger, coping strategies, and mental health in university population <p><strong>Objective:</strong> This study aimed to relate life satisfaction and psychological distress to coping with the perception of criminal danger in university students. <strong>Method:</strong> Three scales were used: The Life Satisfaction Scale, the K-10 Psychological Distress Scale, and the Coping with Perceived Danger Scale. A total of 370 university students participated, of whom 65.4% were female, and 13.8% had experienced crime in the previous two years. <strong>Result:</strong> A positive and statistically significant relationship was found between coping with perceived danger, such as cautious avoidance (r=0.274, p ≤ 0.00), preventive coping (r=0.344, p ≤ 0.00), and extreme avoidance (r=0.207, p ≤0.00), with psychological distress. These relationships were even stronger for victims of crime. Women show higher levels of psychological distress and more cautious, avoidant and extreme coping strategies in the face of danger compared to men. Finally, a negative and significant relationship was observed between psychological distress and life satisfaction. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: It appears that regardless of whether a person has been a victim of crime in the last two years, perceptions of danger and strategies of cautious and even extreme crime prevention are related.</p> Nicol Altamirano Pablo Melo-Moreno Felipe García ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-09-16 2023-09-16 e326 e326 10.24016/2023.v9.326 Brief review of pathophysiological disorders as consequence of psychological stress <p><strong><span lang="EN-GB">Background:&nbsp;</span></strong><span lang="EN-GB">Psychological stress is a reaction to an unexpected situation that favours adaptation and response to the event. However, when psychological stress is chronic or very intense, it can induce changes in various systems and tissues, causing diseases or aggravating existing ones.&nbsp;<strong>Objective:&nbsp;</strong>To briefly analyse the pathophysiological conditions caused by psychological stress.&nbsp;<strong>Method:&nbsp;</strong>A narrative review of the scientific literature on pathophysiological conditions as a consequence of psychological stress was performed.&nbsp;<strong>Results:&nbsp;</strong>Psychological stress can induce various conditions at the gastrointestinal, immune and cardiovascular levels. This is mainly due to the neurobiological and endocrine response because when faced with a stressful stimulus, a deregulated release of glucocorticoids and catecholamines is generated, altering the normal physiology of the organism. Gastrointestinal disorders are mainly due to goblet cell dysfunction, resulting in intestinal hyperpermeability, inflammation and infection. Changes at the immune level&nbsp;<span class="GramE">lead</span>&nbsp;to an increase in inflammatory responses but a decrease in the protective activities of the immune system. Finally, cardiovascular conditions include atherosclerosis, increased blood pressure and stroke.&nbsp;<strong>Conclusion:&nbsp;</strong>Psychological stress can induce real physiological pathologies and, in some cases, fatal ones. Some of the molecular mechanisms involved in these pathologies have already been studied and identified. Knowledge of these molecular mechanisms can help clinicians and therapists to improve the treatment and therapy of patients.</span></p> Francisco López-Naranjo Rebeca Córdova-Moreno Ivo Heyerdahl-Viau ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-09-25 2023-09-25 e327 e327 10.24016/2023.v9.327