Publication Ethics

1. Author Responsibilities

Standards for reporting manuscripts

Authors of original research must provide a detailed and accurate description of the work carried out, accompanied by an objective discussion of its relevance. It is essential that the data presented in the manuscript faithfully reflect the research carried out. Each article must include the necessary information and references to enable other researchers to replicate the study.

Authors are strongly encouraged to follow the international standards proposed by EQUATOR when preparing their manuscripts (

Data Access and Retention

During the editorial review process, authors may be asked to provide data to support their manuscripts. Authors must be willing to make this data publicly available where possible and commit to keeping it available for a reasonable period after the publication of the article. Authors are strongly encouraged to use repositories such as OSJ, Figshare and others to deposit databases, scripts and other materials that facilitate the reproducibility of their research.

Originality and source recognition

Authors are responsible for ensuring that their manuscripts are entirely original. When using the work or words of others, it is imperative to cite properly and to obtain appropriate permissions where necessary.

Acknowledging the work of others is essential. Publications that have been influential in the conception of the work presented must be properly cited, providing the necessary academic context. Information obtained privately, whether through conversations, correspondence or discussions with third parties, should not be disclosed or used without the express written consent of the source.

It is important to remember that plagiarism can take many forms, from presenting someone else's work as one's own to copying or paraphrasing significant parts of someone else's work without giving due credit to appropriating the results of someone else's research. Any form of plagiarism is unethical and will not be tolerated. If evidence of plagiarism is found, the manuscript may be withdrawn.

Multiple, redundant or concurrent publishing

An author may not submit manuscripts describing substantially the same research to more than one journal. Simultaneous submission of the same manuscript in multiple journals is unethical and unacceptable.

An author should refrain from submitting a previously published article for consideration in another journal. Sometimes, the publication of certain types of articles (e.g., clinical guidelines) in more than one journal is justified, provided that certain conditions are met that have been previously discussed between the editors of the journals involved. The authors and editors of the journals involved must agree to the secondary publication, which must reflect the same data and interpretation as the primary document. Also, the primary reference must be cited in the secondary publication.

The use of generative Artificial Intelligence (AI) and AI-assisted technologies in scientific writing

When authors use generative AI and AI-assisted technologies in the writing process, these technologies should only be used to improve the readability and language of the paper. The use of the technology must be under human supervision and control, and authors must carefully review and edit the output, as AI may produce a result that is incorrect, incomplete, or biased. Authors are ultimately responsible and accountable for the content of the work.

Authors must disclose the use of AI and AI-assisted technologies in their manuscript, and a disclosure will appear in the published work. Disclosing the use of these technologies promotes transparency and trust between authors, readers, reviewers, editors and collaborators, and facilitates compliance with the terms of use of the particular tool or technology.

Authors should not list AI and AI-assisted technologies as authors or co-authors, or cite AI as an author. Authorship implies responsibilities and tasks that can only be assigned and performed by humans. Each co-author is responsible for ensuring that questions about the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved, and authorship requires the ability to approve the final version of the work and accept its submission.

The use of generative AI and AI-assisted tools in figures, images and artwork

We do not allow the use of generative AI or AI-assisted tools to create or modify images in submitted manuscripts. This includes enhancing, obscuring, moving, removing, or introducing a specific feature within an image or figure. Adjustments to brightness, contrast, or colour balance are acceptable as long as they do not obscure or eliminate information present in the original.

The only exception is when the use of AI or AI-assisted tools is part of the research design or research methods, as in AI-assisted imaging approaches to generate or interpret the underlying research data (e.g. biomedical imaging). If so, such use must be reproducibly described in the methods section. Authors must adhere to specific guidelines for the use of AI software and ensure proper attribution of content. Authors may be asked to provide AI-adapted versions of images or the composited raw images used to produce the final submitted versions for editorial evaluation.

2. Authorship of the article

Authorship should be limited to those who have made a substantial contribution to the conception, design, execution, or interpretation of the reported study. All those who have made substantial contributions should be listed as co-authors. If others have been involved in certain substantive aspects of the article (e.g., language editing or writing), they should be acknowledged in the Acknowledgments section.

The corresponding author must ensure that all appropriate and no inappropriate co-authors are included in the article and that all co-authors have seen and approved the final version of the manuscript and have agreed to its submission for publication. Authors are expected to carefully consider the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and to provide the final list of authors at the time of initial submission. Only in exceptional circumstances (described below) will the Editorial Board (at its discretion) consider adding, removing or rearranging authors after the manuscript has been submitted, and the author must indicate any such request to the Editor. All authors must agree to any such addition, deletion, or rearrangement.

Authors take collective responsibility for the work. Each author is responsible for ensuring that questions regarding the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are properly investigated and resolved.

3. Rights of Authors

If the article is accepted for publication, authors retain copyright and transfer to the journal the right of first publication and the right to edit, reproduce, distribute, exhibit and communicate the article nationally and internationally in print and digital media.

The digital version is licensed under a Creative Commons licence: Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0). Therefore, this work may be reproduced, distributed and publicly communicated in digital format, provided that the names of the authors and Interacciones are acknowledged.

Authors are permitted to make separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the version of the work published in the journal (e.g. inclusion in an institutional repository or publication in a book), with acknowledgement of its original publication in this journal.

4. Editor Responsibilities

- Publication decision

The editor has the sole responsibility and independence to decide which articles submitted to the journal will be published. However, they may consult with other editors or reviewers and may be guided by the policies established by the Editorial Board of Interacciones.


- Peer Review

The editor will ensure that the peer review process is fair, impartial and timely. Typically, research articles should be reviewed by at least two external, independent reviewers, and the editor should seek additional opinions when necessary. In selecting peer reviewers, the editor will select experts with appropriate experience related to the topic of the manuscript, taking into account the importance of appropriate, inclusive, and diverse representation. The editor will review all disclosures of potential conflicts of interest and self-citations by reviewers to determine whether there is any potential for bias.


- Journal Metrics

The editor is prohibited from manipulating journal metrics. In addition, they should not request the inclusion of references to articles from this journal unless there are legitimate scholarly reasons to do so. The editor must not pressure authors to include references to the editor's articles, products or services in which the editor has an interest.


- Confidentiality

The editor has the responsibility of maintaining the confidentiality of all material received by the journal and all communications maintained with reviewers.

Furthermore, any unpublished material that is provided in a submitted manuscript must not be used by the editor in research of its authorship without the author's written consent. Any ideas or information obtained through the peer review process must be kept strictly confidential and must not be used for the editor's benefit.


- Use of AI and AI-assisted technologies in the editorial process

Editors should not upload any manuscript or any part of it to Artificial Intelligence tools, as this may violate confidentiality, intellectual property rights of authors, and data privacy rights if the article contains identifying data. staff.

The above applies to all communications related to the manuscript, including notification letters, as they may contain confidential information about the manuscript and/or the authors. The quest for better writing does not justify the use of AI during the editorial process.


- Declaration of conflict of interest

If there may be a probable conflict of interest on the part of the editor, this must be communicated in writing before assigning the manuscript in question and must be updated if new conflicts arise.

The editor should not be involved in decisions related to articles of their authorship or that are the property of family members or colleagues, nor in those that are related to services in which the editor is involved directly or indirectly.


- Monitoring of the published article

The editor has the responsibility of preserving the integrity of the published record, which involves reviewing and evaluating any reported or suspected misconduct, whether related to research, publications, reviewers, or the editorial process.

An editor who is presented with compelling evidence of misconduct should coordinate with the Editorial Committee to arrange for the prompt publication of a correction, retraction, expression of concern, or other correction of the record, as appropriate.

5. Reviewer Responsibilities

Contribution to Editorial decisions.

Peer review helps the editor make editorial decisions and, through editorial communication with the author, can also help the author improve the article. Peer review is an essential part of formal scholarly communication and is at the heart of the scientific method. In addition to the specific ethical duties described below, reviewers are generally asked to treat authors and their work as they would like to be treated and to observe good reviewing etiquette.


Any selected reviewer who feels unqualified to review the research reported in a manuscript, or who knows that a timely review will be impossible, should inform the editor and decline to participate in the review process.



Each manuscript received for review will be treated as a confidential document. Reviewers should not share the review or information about the article with anyone, nor should they contact the authors directly, without the permission of the editor.

Some editors encourage peer discussion or joint reviews, but reviewers should discuss this with the editor to ensure that confidentiality is respected and that participants receive appropriate credit.

Unpublished material disclosed in a submitted manuscript should not be used for the reviewer's research without the express written consent of the author. Privileged information or ideas obtained through peer review should be kept confidential and not used for personal gain.


Use of generative AI and AI-assisted technologies in the journal peer review process

When a researcher is invited to review another researcher's article, the manuscript should be treated as a confidential document. Reviewers should not upload a submitted manuscript or any part of it to a generative artificial intelligence tool, as this may violate the confidentiality and proprietary rights of the authors and, if the article contains personally identifiable information, may violate privacy rights.

This confidentiality requirement extends to the peer review report as it may contain confidential information about the manuscript and/or the authors. For this reason, reviewers should not upload their peer review reports to an AI tool, even to improve language and readability.

Peer review is at the heart of the scientific ecosystem and Interacciones adheres to the highest standards of integrity in this process. Reviewing a scientific manuscript involves responsibilities that can only be assigned to human beings. Reviewers must not use generative AI or AI-assisted technologies to assist in the scientific review of an article, as the critical thinking and original evaluation required for peer review are beyond the scope of this technology, and there is a risk that the technology will generate incorrect, incomplete or biased conclusions about the manuscript. The reviewer is responsible for the content of the review report.


Alert to ethical issues.

A reviewer should be alert to potential ethical issues in the article and should bring them to the editor's attention, including any substantial similarity or overlap between the manuscript under consideration and other published articles of which the reviewer has personal knowledge. Any statement that an observation, derivation or argument has been reported previously must be accompanied by the appropriate citation.


Objectivity and Conflicts of Interest

Reviews must be conducted objectively. Reviewers should be aware of any personal biases they may have and take these into account when reviewing an article. Personal criticism of the author is inappropriate. Reviewers must express their views clearly with supporting arguments.

Reviewers should consult the Editor before agreeing to review an article in which they have a potential conflict of interest due to competitive, collaborative or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies or institutions related to the articles.

Suppose a reviewer suggests that an author include citations from the reviewer's (or their collaborators') work. In that case, this must be done for genuine scientific reasons and not to increase the reviewer's citation count or the visibility of their (or their collaborators') work.

6. Plagiarism, duplicate publication and data fabrication

Plagiarism: It is defined as the unrecognised copying or attempted misattribution of images, text, ideas, results, etc. Care should be taken to ensure proper attribution and citation when summarising and/or paraphrasing the work of other authors. "Text recycling" or reusing parts of previously published research by the same author of the current article is a form of self-plagiarism.


Duplication of contributions: This occurs when a substantial part of a previous work by the same author is reused without proper citation. This type of scientific misconduct includes publishing the same article in different journals using part of the data from a previously published article.


Fabrication of data: This occurs when research data is fabricated. If any ethical misconduct is detected during the editorial process or after publication, Interacciones will take the necessary actions based on the recommendations of the Committee on Publications Ethics (COPE) and the Council of Scientific Editors of Interacciones.

All manuscripts submitted to Interacciones will be checked by Turnitin, a software that detects textual duplication. Authors of submissions found to contain plagiarism, duplicate publication, or fabrication of data will be subject to the policies established by COPE.

These measures include rejection or retraction of the article, non-acceptance of future articles sent to Interacciones, notification to other journals, as well as communication to the relevant authorities (institution of origin, institution that financed the study, professional associations and ethics committees, among others).

The procedures in case of detection of misconduct will be based on the COPE guidelines:

In the case of detection of plagiarism:


In the case of detecting redundant publication:


If data fabrication is detected:

7. Conflicts of interest: authors, editors and reviewers

A conflict of interest refers to any factor that may interfere, or be perceived as interfering, with the impartial and complete process of submission, peer review, editorial decision-making, publication of research articles or any other document submitted to Interacciones.

Conflicts of interest can manifest themselves in a variety of ways, including both financial and non-financial considerations, as well as spanning professional and personal domains. They may arise in the context of an institution, an organisation or in interpersonal relationships.

At Interacciones, the disclosure of all potential conflicts of interest is mandatory. This practice is implemented to maintain a transparent and impartial editorial and review process. By publicly disclosing the identity of editors and reviewers involved in the publication of articles, any conflicts of interest can be easily identified.

Failure to disclose conflicts of interest may result in the immediate rejection of an article. If undeclared competing interests are discovered after publication, Interacciones will adhere to the principles established by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and will immediately publish a public notice to inform the academic community.


What and who declares conflicts of interest?

Each individual involved in the peer review process, including authors, editors, reviewers, and readers, is required to disclose all potential conflicting interests that have occurred within the last 2 years from the initial planning of the research in consideration of the publication.

Additionally, any conflict of interest that has occurred outside of the 2 years must also be declared if there is a reasonable perception that it may compete with the interests defined above.



Disclose any potential conflict of interest during the manuscript submission process. Below are some examples of information that may be included in the conflict of interest statement, including:

  • Include the names of all entities with which you have any type of relationship and which have provided any type of support for the manuscript, such as funding, licences, or other forms of support. Those entities that could be perceived as having a potential influence on the study should also be mentioned.
  • Clarify the funder's involvement in the formulation of the study design, data collection, subsequent analysis and interpretation, writing of the article, and/or the decision to submit the work for publication.
  • Indicate if you have previously or currently participated as a member of the editorial board of Interacciones.
  • Indicate if you have participated as an expert in any legal proceedings related to the sample (e.g., if in a case study, in addition to assuming the role of investigator, you also acted as an expert in child custody disputes in situations of separation and divorce).
  • Indicate if you have previously served, or are currently serving, on a committee of an organisation that could potentially benefit from the dissemination of the document.

All potential conflicts of interest must be reported through a conflict of interest disclosure letter shared by Interacciones (CONFLICT OF INTEREST - INTERACCIONES.docx) and must be converted to PDF format during the manuscript submission process. If a situation is not covered in the letter, this information should be included at the end of the letter, taking care to provide a complete and accurate disclosure of any potential conflict of interest.

If you have not disclosed any potential conflicts of interest during the submission process, or if you have any questions, we encourage you to contact us by email at Please use the subject line "Conflict of Interest Statement" to ensure that your communication is directed to the appropriate team.


Editors and reviewers

Editors and reviewers are asked to consider potential conflicts of interest before accepting an editorial or review assignment. If necessary, they will be asked to recuse themselves from the evaluation of a manuscript to ensure the impartiality and objectivity of the review process. 

Below are some examples of conflicts of interest that editors and reviewers may have:


Affiliation and/or collaborations:

  • Work or have recently worked in the same institution or organisation as one of the authors.
  • Have collaborated with any of the authors on recent projects, research or publications.
  • Have co-authored articles with any of the authors in the last 2 years.
  • Have worked or are working as a consultant or in another direct supervisory role with any of the authors in the last 2 years.
  • Have worked or are working as a student or in any other direct subordinate role with any of the authors in the last 2 years.



  • I have a financial relationship with the company or organisation that funded the research or has an interest in the outcome of the study.
  • I may have competing interests in the content of the manuscript that could affect my ability to conduct an objective review.
  • I am currently or have recently received any grant or funding of any kind from any of the authors.


Close personal or family relationships:

  • Possible personal relationship with any of the authors that may affect the ability to evaluate the manuscript objectively.
  • The existence of kinship, marriage, or close friendship with any of the authors must be disclosed.
  • Reviewers must not have family ties to the assigned editor.



  • Anyone commenting on articles published on Interacciones must disclose any conflict of interest, financial or otherwise, at the time of commenting.


Editorial Actions and Decisions

  • The editors of Interacciones must consider all competing interests and ensure that relevant interests are properly declared in the published article.
  • Interacciones editors will not solicit the opinion of reviewers who have conflicting interests that, in the opinion of the editors, may affect the impartiality of the review.
  • Interacciones will not publish commissioned articles or any other type of article where there is a conflict of interest that could lead to bias or a reasonable perception of bias.

8. Retraction policy

Article Withdrawal

Withdrawn means that the content of the article (HTML and PDF) is removed and replaced with an HTML page and a PDF that simply indicates that the article has been removed by Interacciones' policy for removing articles in the press, with a link to the current policy document.

Only articles in press (articles that have been accepted for publication but have not yet been formally published and do not yet have full volume/issue/page information) that contain methodological errors, are found to be accidental duplicates of other published articles, have been published in more than one journal (in most cases duplicate publication), false claims of authorship, plagiarism, fraudulent use of data, or similar) can be "Removed" from Interacciones.

Article Retraction

Retraction is applied to articles formally published in the journal. It occurs when there are violations of professional codes of ethics, such as multiple submission (in most cases, duplicate publication), false claims of authorship, plagiarism, fraudulent use of data or similar. Occasionally, a retraction will be used to correct errors in presentation or publication. The retraction of an article by its authors or editor under the advice of members of the academic community has long been an occasional feature of academia. The following guidelines were adopted for the retraction of articles:

  • A retraction note titled “Retraction: [title of article]” signed by the authors and/or the editor is published in the paginated part of a later issue of the journal and is included in the list of contents.
  • There is a link to the original article in the electronic version.
  • The online article is preceded by a screen containing the retraction note. The link resolves to this screen, from where the reader can access the article itself.
  • The original article is preserved unchanged, except for a watermark in the .pdf indicating on each page that it is "retracted".
  • The HTML version of the document is removed.


Article replacement

In cases where the article, if acted upon, could pose a serious health risk, the authors of the original article may wish to retract the defective original and replace it with a corrected version. In these circumstances, retraction procedures will be followed with the difference that the database retraction notice will publish a link to the corrected and republished article and a history of the document.

9. Authorship modification policy

Interacciones follow the guidelines established by COPE to make changes to the authorship of articles. Any modification to the author list after the initial submission must have the agreement of all authors involved. This includes additions, deletions, and changes to the order of authors.

Change requests must be submitted by the corresponding author, who must include a detailed explanation of how the added authors contributed to the work and the reason behind changes in authorship after the initial submission. Likewise, the corresponding author must provide Interacciones with documentation confirming that all authors, both those who are added and those who are removed or reordered, have given their written consent to make the changes. It should be noted that requests to change authorship are subject to approval by Interacciones.

The request for change of authorship must be sent to the journal's email with the subject “Change of authorship - ID [Article identification number])”. After the evaluation of the case, Interacciones will decide to send the change of authorship form for the respective consent of the authors and there will be 72 hours to receive compliance with the request.

If an authorship dispute arises, the journal will not take part in resolving the conflict. If the authors involved cannot resolve the dispute themselves, the issue will be referred to the authors' institution(s), following the guidelines established by COPE. The journal will abide by the institutional recommendations resulting from investigations into authorship, except in rare exceptions.

In situations in which delays are detected in the resolution of authorship problems before publication, such as authorship disputes that are not resolved on time or difficulties in obtaining the contribution of an institution, Interacciones reserves the right to withdraw or reject the shipment. In such cases, it is the author's responsibility to continue to communicate with each other or relevant institutional officials to resolve any outstanding issues. The journal will consider a new submission once the issue is adequately resolved.

Interacciones will not consider requests to add or remove authors once the article has been accepted or published unless there are special circumstances that justify it:

  • After acceptance of the article: If your article presents special circumstances that require a change of authorship after its acceptance, please contact the journal by email using the subject "Change of authorship - Accepted article - ID [N°]", since these types of requests will need approval from the journal's editorial team.
  • After the article has been published: Authorship changes that occur after publication will be handled through corrections unless there are exceptional circumstances that warrant it. In this situation, you can contact us by email with the subject line "Authorship correction - ID [N°]".

*To reflect name changes for authors who are transgender or non-binary, we will update author signatures via silent republishing, that is, without an accompanying Correction notice. Other name change requests will be considered at the discretion of the journal.

In order to provide more detailed information, a direct link is provided to the COPE guidelines that address changes of authorship in common situations:

10. Research Ethics

Studies Involving Human Subjects

Research with human subjects should have been carried out in accordance with the recommendations of the Declaration of Helsinki

Studies involving human participants should be conducted in accordance with relevant institutional and national guidelines, with prior approval of the appropriate institutional ethics committee and informed consent in writing from all human subjects involved in the study, including publication of the results. Confirmation of this approval is required when submitting a manuscript to Interacciones. Authors must attach a letter of approval from the ethics committee within the submission system. Information regarding subjects' (or, where applicable, parents' or guardians') consent to participate must be provided within the submission system. Frontiers requires that consent to participate be informed and written unless waived by an ethics committee or not required under local law.

"The studies involving human participants were reviewed and approved by [full name and ethics committee affiliation]. Patients/participants provided written informed consent to participate in this study."

Studies involving Animals

All research involving regulated animals (i.e., all living vertebrates and higher invertebrates) must have been reviewed and approved by an ethics committee before beginning the study and be conducted in accordance with relevant institutional and national guidelines and regulations.

Interacciones follows the International Veterinary Publishers Association (AVMA) guidelines for publishing studies, including animal research. Clinical studies involving animals and interventions outside of routine care require ethics committee oversight according to the American Veterinary Medical Association. Authors must provide ethical approval information within the submission system, resulting in an ethics statement to be included in the submission

Studies involving Vulnerable Populations

The Editorial Committee of Interacciones may request additional information from authors who conduct research in vulnerable populations. This may include:

  • Recruitment procedures and justification for the use of the population.
  • A copy of the consent form read and signed by participants
  • The study protocol approved by the ethics committee
  • Any other standard documents, such as ethical approval certificates for consent forms.

Inclusion of identifiable human data

Interacciones follow the COPE recommendations on protecting participants in research, which establish that participants have a right to privacy that should not be violated without informed consent. We require that non-essential identifiable details be omitted from all manuscripts, and written informed consent will be required if there is any doubt that anonymity can be maintained.

It is the responsibility of researchers and authors to ensure that these principles are followed, including obtaining written informed consent for the publication of any potentially identifiable data or images.

11. Materials and data policies

Interacciones is committed to open science and open data. We invite authors to make available all data relevant to the conclusions of the manuscript. The data generated must be publicly available and cited in accordance with our "Data Citation Guidelines" below. We aim to achieve the best community standards regarding data availability, ensuring higher levels of transparency and reproducibility in our published articles.

Availability of materials

Authors are required to provide access to all materials used in their research for other researchers. The research materials required to enable the reproduction of an experiment should be clearly stated in the Materials and Methods section. Relevant materials such as protocols, analytical methods and study material should preferably be uploaded to an online repository that provides a global persistent link/identifier. If this is not possible, authors are strongly encouraged to make this material available to interested researchers upon request, and this should be indicated in the manuscript.

Data availability

Data must be findable, accessible, interoperable, and reusable so that other researchers can locate and use it. However, exceptions are granted if the data cannot be made available to the public for legal or ethical reasons.

To comply with best practices in their field of research, authors should make certain types of data available to readers at the time of publication in specific, stable, community-supported repositories, such as those listed below.

Exceptions related to data availability

We strongly recommend sharing the maximum amount of data; however, where there are ethical, legal or privacy concerns, data should not be shared. In cases where some or all data cannot be shared due to legal, ethical, or privacy restrictions, authors should make these limitations clear in the “Data Availability Statement” at the time of submission.

Potential limitations to making data publicly available include patient confidentiality and participant privacy. Authors must ensure that the data shared is in accordance with the ethical consent provided by participants on the use of sensitive/identifiable human data. We require the authors to demonstrate that the publication of such data After acceptance of the article: If your article presents special circumstances that require a change of authorship after its acceptance, please contact the journal by email using the subject "Change of authorship - Accepted article - ID [N°]", since these types of requests will need approval from the journal's editorial team.