Psychometric Analysis of the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale in Argentinean Population

  • Leandro Eidman Universidad de Ciencias Empresariales y Sociales, Chaco, Argentina; Red de Psicólogos Especializados en Catástrofes Argentina, Chaco, Argentina.
  • Julieta Arbizu Red de Psicólogos Especializados en Catástrofes Argentina, Chaco, Argentina; Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Mar del Plata, Argentina.
  • Agustín Marturet Universidad de Ciencias Empresariales y Sociales, Chaco, Argentina; Red de Psicólogos Especializados en Catástrofes Argentina, Chaco, Argentina.
Keywords: coronavirus, anxiety, Argentinean adaptation, psychometric properties, validity


Background: The purpose of this research was to analyze the psychometric properties of the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale to measure anxiety symptoms associated with COVID-19 in a sample of the Argentine population. Method: A non-randomized sample of 1098 subjects residing in different provinces of the Argentine Republic was used. The average age was 36.68 (SD = 14.34, Min = 18, Max = 83), 78.1% were women and 21.9% were men. A non-experimental, cross-sectional, instrumental study was designed. The epistemological basis used was classical psychometry. Results: Psychometric analyses reported that the scale has a one-dimensional structure with adequate reliability and validity (Ω = .93). The items met expected values for their discrimination, which showed that the instrument can distinguish between people with presence or absence of anxiety symptoms associated with Sars-Cov-2. The cut-off point for symptomatic identification was ≥ 10. The prevalence of anxiety symptoms by coronavirus was 22.4%. Conclusions: It can be concluded that this scale has an adequate format for its use in the Argentinean population in the context of coronavirus pandemic and its basic psychometric analysis indicated a good general performance of its measures, which allows identifying the presence or absence of anxiety symptoms.


Download data is not yet available.


Aguado, M. S., García, A. G. G., & Contreras, C. M. (2020). Una feromona de alarma produce reacción de congelamiento después de una sola exposición. eNeurobiología, 11(26), 2.

Alarcón, M. E. B. (2018). Estrés y burnout enfermedades en la vida actual. Palibrio.

American Psychiatric Association, DSM-5 Task Force (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-5™ (5th ed.). American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.

Ato, M., López, J. J., & Benavente, A. (2013). Un sistema de clasificación de los diseños de investigación en psicología. Anales de Psicología, 29(3), 1038-1059.

Axelrod, J. (2020). Coronavirus may infect up to 70% of world’s population, expert warns. Recuperado de

Balaratnasingam, S., & Janca, A. (2006). Mass hysteria revisited. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 19(2), 171-174. doi: 10.1097/01.yco.0000214343.59872.7a.

Barlow, D. H. (1991). Disorders of emotion. Psychological Inquiry, 2(1), 58-71.

Barraza, A. (2020). El estrés de la pandemia (COVID 19) en población Mexicana. Centro de Estudios Clínica e Investigación Psicoanalítica SC, México. Disponible en http://www. upd. edu. mx/PDF/Libros/Coronavirus. pdf.

Bollen, K., & Long, J. (1993). Testing structural equation models. Sage.

Brown, T. A. (2006). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. Guilford publications.

Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit En: Bollen KA, Long JS, eds. Testing Structural Equation Models. Sage, 136-162.

Brunetti, A., & Gargoloff, P. (2020). Impacto de la pandemia por COVID-19 en la salud mental, con especial foco en personas con trastornos mentales severos y persistentes. Question/Cuestión, 1(mayo), e278.

Bryant, F. B., & Satorra, A. (2012). Principles and practice of scaled difference Chi-Square testing. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal. 19, 372–398.

Cía, A. H., Stagnaro, J. C., Gaxiola, S. A., Vommaro, H., Loera, G., Medina-Mora, M. E.,... Kessler, R. C. (2018). Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset of mental disorders in adults from the Argentinean Study of Mental Health Epidemiology. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 4(53), 341-350.

Centro de Investigaciones Sociales (2020). Informes de Opinión Pública. Pandemia y Salud Mental. Voices Research and Consultancy. ISSN 2618-2173.

Coulacoglou, C., & Saklofske, D. H. (2017). Psychometrics and Psychological Assessment Principles and Applications. Elsevier, Academic Press.

Chong, M. Y., Wang, W. C., Hsieh, W. C., Lee, C. Y., Chiu, N. M., Yeh, W. C.,... Chen, C. L. (2004). Psychological impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome on health workers in a tertiary hospital. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 185(2), 127-133.

Delbon, M. (2020). El impacto psicológico de la cuarentena en estudiantes universitarios y/o terciarios. Revista de la Facultad de Medicina de la UNNE, 40(3), 23-36.

Dias Lopes, L. F., Chaves, B. M., Fabrício, A., Porto, A., Machado de Almeida, D., Obregon, S. L.,... de Moura, G. L. (2020). Analysis of Well-Being and Anxiety among University Students. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(11), 3874.

Eidman, L., Arbizu, J., Lamboglia, A., Correa, L. (2021). Salud Mental y síntomas psicológicos en adultos argentinos de población general en contexto de pandemia por COVID-19. Subjetividad y Procesos Cognitivos, 24(2), 1-16.

Epskamp, S., Stuber, S., Nak, J., Veenman, M., & Jorgensen, T. D. (2019). semPlot: Path Diagrams and Visual Analysis of Various SEM Packages’ Output (Version 1.1. 2)[Computer software].

Evans, J. D. (1996). Straightforward statistics for the behavioral sciences. Brooks/Cole Publishing.

Flaherty, J. A., Gaviria, F. M., Pathak, D., Mitchell, T., Wintrob, R., Richman, J. A., & Birz, S. (1988). Developing instruments for cross-cultural psychiatric research. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease.

Fletcher, T. D., & Fletcher, M. T. D. (2013). Package psychometric. Recuperado de http://cran. rproject. org/web/packages/psychometric/psychometric. pdf Vol 4.

Fornell, C. & F.L. Bookstein (1982). Two structural equation models: LISREL and PLS applied to consumer exit-voice theory. Journal of Marketing Research, 19(4), 440-452.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equations models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39-50).

Franco-Jimenez, R. A. (2020). Traducción y análisis psicométrico del Coronavirus Anxiety Scale (CAS) en jóvenes y adultos peruanos. Interacciones, e159-e159.

Freiberg Hoffmann, A., Stover, J. B., de la Iglesia, G., & Fernández Liporace, M. (2013). Correlaciones Policóricas y Tetracóricas en Estudios Exploratorios y Confirmatorios. Ciencias Psicológicas, 7(2), 151-164.

García-Campayo, J., Zamorano, E., Ruiz, M.A., Pardo, A., Pérez Páramo, M., López-Gomez, V., Freire, O., & Rejas, J. (2010). Cultural adaptation into Spanish of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) scale as a screening tool. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 8(8), 1-11.

González-Rivera, J., Rosario-Rodríguez, A., & Cruz-Santos, A. (2020). Escala de Ansiedad por Coronavirus: Un Nuevo Instrumento para Medir Síntomas de Ansiedad Asociados al COVID-19. Interacciones, 6(3), e163.

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (2006). Multivariate Data Analysis. Pearson Prentice Hall.

Hu, L. T., Bentler, P. M., & Kano, Y. (1992). Can test statistics in covariance structure analysis be trusted?. Psychological bulletin, 112(2), 351.

Johnson, M. C., Saletti-Cuesta, L., & Tumas, N. (2020). Emociones, preocupaciones y reflexiones frente a la pandemia del COVID-19 en Argentina. Ciência & Saúde Coletiva, 25(suppl 1), 2447-2456.

Jorgensen, T. D., Pornprasertmanit, S., Schoemann, A. M., Rosseel, Y., Miller, P., Quick, C., & Garnier-Villarreal, M. (2018). semTools: Useful tools for structural equation modeling. R package version 0.5-1.

Karaahmet, E., Angın, Ü., Yılmaz, O., Deniz, D., & Konuk, N. (2021). Assessment of psychometric characteristics of the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale in patients with preexisting psychiatric disorders. Death Studies, 1-5.

Kline, R. B. (2018). Response to leslie hayduk’s review of principles and practice of structural equation modeling. Canadian Studies in Population, 45(3-4), 188-95.

Lee, S. (2020). Coronavirus Anxiety Scale: A brief mental health screener for COVID-19 related anxiety. Death Studies, 44(7), 1-9.

Liu, S., Yang, L., Zhang, C., Xiang, Y. T., Liu, Z., Hu, S., & Zhang, B. (2020). Online mental health services in China during the COVID-19 outbreak. The Lancet Psychiatry, 7(4), e17-e18.

Lloret-Segura, S., Ferreres-Traver, A., Hernández-Baeza, A., & Tomás-Marco, I. (2014). El análisis factorial exploratorio de los ítems: una guía práctica, revisada y actualizada. Anales de Psicología/Annals of Psychology, 30(3), 1151-1169.

Martorell, M. C., González, R., Odoñez, A., & Gómez, O. (2011). Estudio confirmatorio del cuestionario de conducta antisocial (CCA) y su relación con variables de personalidad y conducta antisocial. Revista Iberoamericana de Diagnóstico y Evaluación – e Avaliação Psicológica, 31(2), 35-52.

McDonald, R.P. (1999). Test theory: A unified treatment. Erlbaum.

Mieres, D. O., & Medina, C. L. A. (2020). Relación entre calidad de sueño e indicadores de ansiedad y depresión. ScientiAmericana, 7(2), 45-56.

Muthén, B., & Kaplan, D. (1985). A comparison of some methodologies for the factor analysis of non‐normal Likert variables. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 38(2), 171-189.

Nunnally, J. C., & Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric theory (3rd ed.). McGraw Hill.

Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS; 2020a, 11 de marzo). Discurso de apertura del Director General de la OMS en la sesión informativa para los medios de comunicación sobre COVID-19. Consultado el 11 de marzo de 2020 en

Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS). (2020, 23 de marzo). Situación del brote de la enfermedad del Coronavirus (COVID-19). Obtenido de

Organización Panamericana de la Salud. (2020). Salud en las Américas, panorama regional y perfiles de país. Autor.

Pechorro, P., Kahn, R. E., Ray, J. V., Raine, A., & GonÇalves, R. A. (2017). Psychometric Properties of the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire among a sample of detained and community girls. Criminal justice and behavior, 44(4), 531-550.

Pérez-Gil, J. A., Moscoso, S. C., & Rodríguez, R. M. (2000). Validez de constructo: el uso de análisis factorial exploratorio-confirmatorio para obtener evidencias de validez. Psicothema, 12(Suplemento), 442-446.

Perugini, M. L. L., & Solano, A. C. (2018). Influencia de virtudes organizacionales sobre satisfacción, compromiso y performance laboral en organizaciones argentinas. Interdisciplinaria, 35(1), 171-188.

Revelle, W. (2018). Psych: Procedures for personality and psychological research (Version 1.9. 12.31)[Computer software]. Northwestern University.

Rosseel, Y., Oberski, D., Byrnes, J., Vanbrabant, L., Savalei, V., Merkle, E., ... & Rosseel, M. Y. (2017). Package lavaan. Retrieved June, 17, 2017.

Saldana-Aguado, M., Gutierrez-Garcia, A. G., & Contreras, C. M. (2020). An alarm pheromone produces freezing response after a single exposure/Una feromona de alarma produce reacción de congelamiento después de una sola exposición. eNeurobiologia, 11(26), NA-NA.

Stegmann, R. B. G. (2017). Review of A Beginner’s Guide to Structural Equation Modeling , by Randall E. Schumacker & Richard G. Lomax. Routledge.

Spitzer, R. L., Kroenke, K., Williams, J. B. W., & Löwe, B. (2006). A brief measure for assessing generalized anxiety disorder: The GAD-7. Archives of Internal Medicine, 166(10), 1092–1097.

Villanueva, R. A. M., & Chen, Z. J. (2019). ggplot2: Elegant graphics for data analysis. Springer.

Wheaton, M. G., Abramowitz, J. S., Berman, N. C., Fabricant, L. E., & Olatunji, B. O, Cognitive Therapy and Research (2012). Psychological predictors of anxiety in response to the H1N1 (swine flu) pandemic. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 36(3), 210–218.

Wu, P., Fang, Y., Guan, Z., Fan, B., Kong, J., Yao, Z., Liu, X., & Hoven, C. W. (2009). The psychological impact of the SARS epidemic on hospital employees in China: Exposure, risk perception, and altruistic acceptance of risk. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 54, 302–311.

Yip, P. S. F., Cheung, Y. T., Chau, P. H., & Law, Y. W. (2010). The impact of epidemic outbreak: The case of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and suicide among older adults in Hong Kong. Crisis, 31(2), 86–92.

How to Cite
Eidman, L., Arbizu, J., & Marturet, A. (2021). Psychometric Analysis of the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale in Argentinean Population. Interacciones, 7, e192.
Original paper