Perception of individual and group discrimination among LGB individuals in Puerto Rico: A descriptive study

Keywords: discrimination, LGB/LGBT, homosexuality, bisexuality, relative importance index


Background: Discrimination is one or more unjustified negative behaviors towards a person based on one or more characteristics of that person. In the case of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) persons, they have been constant victims of stereotypes, prejudices, and discrimination around the world. However, few scientific studies explore the experiences of discrimination in Puerto Rico, since most studies have focused on negative attitudes, prejudice, and social distance. Objective: The aims of this brief report are 1) to describe in detail the relative importance of the quality of the items of the Perceived Discrimination in the LGB Community Scale, and 2) to describe the experiences of discrimination both at the individual and group level of an LGB sample according to the order of relative importance found. Method: This research had a quantitative method with a descriptive study design, instrumental type. To meet the objective of this study, the data collected in each item was independently evaluated to examine the experience and perception of each participant in the situation presented by each premise. A non-probability sample of 300 LGB participants was recruited in Puerto Rico. Results: The area with the highest reported experiences of individual discrimination was the relationship category (M=.700), followed by psychological (M=.630), society/environmental (M=.566), family/employment (M=.566) and physical (M=.386) respectively. The area with the highest perceptions of group discrimination reported by the sample was the education/health category (M = .882), followed by culture/society (M=.827), politics (M=.803), maternity/paternity (M=.802) and locality (M=.791) respectively. Conclusion: When analyzing all the items, it was observed that the results of the first 22 positions according to the Relative Importance Index, correspond to the experiences of discrimination in a group way. This means that people perceive greater discrimination as a group than the discrimination they perceive about their own person.


Download data is not yet available.


Abbink, K., & Harris, D. (2019). In-group favoritism and out-group discrimination in naturally occurring groups. PLoS ONE 14(9), e0221616. pone.0221616

Akadiri, O.P. (2011). Development of a multi-criteria approach for the selection of sustainable materials for building projects (Doctoral Dissertation). University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, UK.

American Psychological Association. (2021). APA guidelines for psychological practice with sexual minority persons.

Armenta, B. E., & Hunt, J. S. (2009). Responding to societal devaluation: Effects of perceived personal and group discrimination on the group identification and self-esteem of Latinos/as. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 12(1), 23-39.

Ato, M., López, J. J., & Benavente, A. (2013). Un sistema de clasificación de los diseños de investigación en psicología. Anales de Psicología, 29(3), 1038-1059.

Bourhis, R. Y. (2020). A journey researching prejudice and discrimination. Canadian Psychology, 61(2), 95-100.

Field, A. P. (2013). Discovering statistics using SPSS. London, England: SAGE.

González-Rivera, J. A., & Pabellón-Lebrón, S. M. (2018). Desarrollo y validación de un instrumento para medir discriminación percibida en la comunidad LGBT. Revista Evaluar, 18(2), 59-74.

González-Rivera, J. A., & Pabellón-Lebrón, S. (2018). Desarrollo y validación de un instrumento para medir discriminación percibida en la comunidad LGBT. Revista Evaluar, 18(2), 59-74.

Groyecka, A., Witkowska, M., Wróbel, M., Klamut, O., & Skrodzka, M. (2019). Challenge your stereotypes! Human Library and its impact on prejudice in Poland. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 29(4), 311–322.

Hack, S. M., Muralidharan, A., Brown, C. H., Drapalski, A. L., & Lucksted, A. A. (2020). Stigma and discrimination as correlates of mental health treatment engagement among adults with serious mental illness. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 43(2), 106-110.

Hernández-Sampieri, R., Fernández-Collado, C., & Baptista-Lucio, P. (2014). Metodología de la investigación (6th ed.). McGraw Hill.

Hinton, J. D. X., Anderson, J. R., & Koc, Y. (2019). Exploring the relationship between gay men’s self- and meta-stereotype endorsement with well-being and self-worth. Psychology & Sexuality, 10(2), 169-182.

IBM Corporation (2016). IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 24.0 [Software]. Armonk, IBM.

Kline, P. (2000). The Handbook of psychometric testing. New York: Routledge.

Luiggi-Hernández, J. G., Laborde-Torres, G. E., González-Domínguez, J., Carrasquillo-Sánchez, G. M. Piñero-Meléndez, M., Castro-Medina, D., & González-Rentas, C. M. (2015). Outing the discrimination towards LGBT people during the hiring process: What about their well-being? Revista Puertorriqueña de Psicología, 26(2), 194-213.

Molero, F., Recio, P., García-Ael, C., & Pérez-Garín, D. (2019). Consequences of perceived personal and group discrimination against people with physical disabilities. Rehabilitation Psychology, 64(2), 212-220.

Pérez-Garín, D., Molero F., & Bos, A. E. R. (2017). The effect of personal and group discrimination on the subjective well-being of people with mental illness: the role of internalized stigma and collective action intention. Psychology, Health & Medicine, 22(4), 406-414.

Ramos-Pibernus, A., Rivera-Segarra, E. R., Rodríguez-Madera, S. L., Varas-Díaz, N., Padilla, M. (2020). Stigmatizing experiences of trans men in Puerto Rico: Implications for health. Transgender Health, 1–7.

Rodríguez-Díaz, C. E., Jovet-Toledo, G. G., Vélez-Vega, C. M., Ortiz-Sánchez, E. J., Santiago-Rodríguez-Madera, S. L., Padilla, M., Varas-Díaz, N., Neilands, T., Vasques-Guzzi, A. C., Florenciani, E. J., & Ramos-Pibernus, A. (2017): Experiences of violence among transgender women in Puerto Rico: An underestimated problem. Journal of Homosexuality, 64(2), 209-217.

Rodríguez-Polo, J., Santiago, J., Lorenzo, W., Torres, K., Quiñones, S., Delgado, Y., Ortiz, D., Acevedo, P., & Morales, B. (2017). Heterosexismo organizacional y su relación con el manejo de la orientación sexual y el bienestar psicológico en una muestra de trabajadores LGBT en Puerto Rico. Ciencias de la Conducta, 32(1), 200-234.

Rodríguez-Díaz, C. E., Jovet-Toledo, G. G., Vélez-Vega, C. M., Ortiz-Sánchez, E. J., Santiago-Rodríguez, E. I., Vargas-Molina, R. L., Rodríguez-Madera, S. L., Mulinelli-Rodríguez, J. J. (2016). Discrimination and health among lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans people in Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal, 35(3), 154-159.

Stangor, C. (2012). Social psychology principles.

Toro-Alfonso, J. (2007). Por la vía de la exclusión: Homofobia y ciudadanía en Puerto Rico. San Juan, PR: Comisión de Derechos Civiles.

Zhang, W., Mei, D., & Yin, L. (2020). Neural responses of in-group “favoritism” and out-group “discrimination” toward moral behaviors. Neuropsychologia, 139, 107375.

How to Cite
Esteban, C., & González-Rivera, J. (2022). Perception of individual and group discrimination among LGB individuals in Puerto Rico: A descriptive study. Interacciones, 8, e248.
Original paper