Spirituality and Emotional Intelligence in university students of the city of Ayacucho

Keywords: Emotional intelligence, spirituality, university, correlation, self-awareness, regulation


This research aims to find the existing correlation between Emotional Intelligence (EI) and Spirituality in university students of the city of Ayacucho. We opted for a quantitative method, of correlational type transactional design. To this end, we had a sample of 195 university students from two private Ayacucho universities, of which 41% are male and 59% are female, with an age range between 18 and 38 years (M = 20.43). The Trait Meta-Mood Scale-24 Questionnaire and the Spirituality Questionnaire; both adapted to the Peruvian population. We analyzed the correlations of the dimensions of both; obtaining positive correlations between all dimensions of IE with the dimensions of Spirituality; so it is concluded that both constructs are correlated. Likewise, the analyzes carried out show that there are significant differences in the explicit assessment of spirituality according to sex; specifically women score more in this regard. It can also be highlighted that the self-awareness dimension of the Spirituality questionnaire presents the strongest correlations with the Emotional Intelligence dimensions.


Download data is not yet available.


Afolabi, O. A. (2017). Indigenous Emotional Intelligence Scale: Development and Validation. Psychological Thought, 10(1), 138-154. doi: 10.5964/psyct.v10i1.184.

Amram, Y. (2009). The contribution of emotional and spiritual intelligence to eleadership. Doctoral Dissertion, Institute of Transpersonal Psychology, Alto.

Anchorena, S. (2014). Diferencia de los niveles de inteligencia emocional-social entre los estudiantes católicos practicantes y no practicantes de un colegio privado. Revista de Investigación en Psicología, 17(2), 159-170.

Argimon, J., & Jiménez, J. (2000). Métodos de investigación clínica y epidemiológica (3da. Ed.). Madrid: Elsevier.

Arikhman, N., Machmud, R., Hasan,A ., & Bachtiar. H. (2016). Dimension Model Development of Health Center Staff Soft Skills in Mediating Determinant Factors With Performance. International Journal of Scientific Research And Education, 4(11), 6032-6039. doi: 10.18535/ijsre/v4i11.06

Barreto, P., Fombuena, M., Diego, R., Galiana, L., & Oliver, A. (2013). Medicina Paliativa Bienestar emocional y espiritualidad al final de la vida. Medicina Paliativa, 22(1), 25- 32. doi: 10.1016/j.medipa.2013.02.002

Bono, R. y Arnau, J. (1996). Análisis de la potencia del estadístico C mediante simulación. Psicothema, 8 (3), 699-708.

Bryant, A. N. (2007). Gender differences in spiritual development during the college years. Sex Roles, 56(11-12), 835-846. doi: 10.1007/s11199-007-9240-2.

Carr, D y Haldane, J. (2003). Spirituality, Philosophy and Education. London, England: Routledge.

Castillo, K. y Greco, C. (2014). Inteligencia emocional: un estudio exploratorio en escolares argentinos de contextos rurales. Revista de Psicología, 23(2), 116-132. doi: 0719-0581.2015.36152

Cejudo, J. (2016). Relación entre inteligencia emocional y salud mental en una muestra de orientadores educativos. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 14(1), 131-154.

Charoensukmongkol, P., Daniel, J. S., y Chatelain-Jardon, R. (2013). Enhancing workplace spirituality through emotional intelligence. The Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship, 18(4), 3-17.

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2 ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Comisión de la Verdad y Reconciliación. (28 de agosto, 2003). Informe Final de la CVR. [Comunicado de prensa]. Recuperado de: http://www.cverdad.org.pe/pagina01.php.

Cruzan, C.B. (2016). Connecting with self, god, and others: the relationship between mindful awareness, prayer, and empathy development (Dissertation submitted to the graduate FACULTY in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy). University of Oklahoma.

Currier, J.M., Fostera, J.D., Abernethyb, A.D., Witvlietc, C.V., Root Lunac. L.M., Putmand, K.M., Cartere, J. (2017). God imagery and affective outcomes in a spiritually integrative inpatient program. Psychiatry Research, 254, 317-322. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2017.05.003.

Devi, R.K., Rajesh, N.V y Devi, M.A. (2017). Study of Spiritual Intelligence and Adjustment Among Arts and Science College Students. Journal of Religion and Health, 56(3), 828-838. doi: 10.1007/s10943-016-0225-8.

Diaz, N., Muñoz, D y Vargas, D (2012). Reability and validity of spirituality questionnaire by Parsian and Dunning in the Spanish version. Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem, 20(3), 559-566.

Esnaola, I., Freeman, J., Saresa, M., Fernández-Zabala, A y Axpe, I. (2016). Validity Evidence based on Internal Structure of Scores of the Emotional Quotient-Inventory: Youth Version Short (EQ-i: YV-S) in a Spanish Sample. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 19(12), 1-9. doi: 10.1017/sjp.2016.12

Fallot, R. D. (2001). The Place of Spirituality and Religion in Mental Health Services. New Directions for Mental Health Services, 91, 79-88. doi: 10.1002/yd.23320019109.

Fernández-Berrocal, P., Extremera, N y Ramos, J. (2004). Inteligencia emocional, calidad de las relaciones interpersonales y empatía en estudiantes universitarios. Revista Clínica y Salud, 15, 117-137.

Ferrando, P. J. y Anguiano-Carrasco, C. (2010). El análisis factorial como técnica de investigación en psicología. Papeles del Psicológo, 31(1), 18-33.

Fisher, J.W. (1999). Help To Fostering Students‘ Spiritual Health. International Journal Of Children´s Spirituality, 4(1), 29-49. doi: 10.1080/1364436990040104

Gallagher, E., Wadsworth, A y Stratton, T. (2002). Religion, spirituality, and mental health. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Discase, 190(10), 697-704.

García Jiménez, E., Gil Flores, J y Rodríguez Gómez, G. (2000): Análisis factorial, Cuadernos de estadística 7. Madrid / Salamanca: La Muralla /Hespérides.

George, D., & Mallery, P. (2003). SPSS for Windows step by step: A simple guide and reference. 11.0 update (4th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Gutierrez, D., Conley, A y Young, M. (2016). The effect of jyoti meditation on student counselors' stress and emotional intelligence: A randomized controlled trial. Counselor Education and Supervision, 55, 109-121.

Heimbrock, H. (2004). Beyond Secularization: Experiences of The Sacred In Childhood And Adolescence As A Challenge For Re Development Theory. British Journal Of Religious Education, 26(2), 119-131. doi: 10.1080/01416200420042000181901.

Hernández, R., Fernández, C. y Baptista, P. (2014). Metodología de la investigación (6a ed.). México, D.F., México: McGraw-Hill Interamericana.

Huston, D. (2010). Waking Up to Ourselves: The Use of Mindfulness Meditation and Emotional Intelligence in the Teaching of Communications. New Directions for Community Colleges, 151, 39–50.

Jordan, K. D., Masters, K. S., Hooker, S. a., Ruiz, J. M., y Smith, T. W. (2014). An interpersonal approach to religiousness and spirituality: Implications for health and well- being. Journal of Personality, 82(5), 418-431. doi: 10.1111/ jopy.12072

Kamler, B. y Thomson, P. (2006). Helping doctoral students write. London, England: Routledge.

Kelley, B. S., y Miller, L., (2007). Life Satisfaction and Spirituality in adolescents.Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion, 18, pp. 233-262 (cited by: Hasnain, N., Ansari, S. A., & Samantray, 2011, European Journal of Social Sciences, 20(3), 434.

Kendall, R., Matos, J., Cabra, M. (2006). Salud mental en el Perú, luego de la violencia política. Intervenciones itinerantes. En Anales de la Facultad de Medicina Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, 67(2), 184-190.

Lips-Wiersma, M., y Mills, C. (2002). Coming out of the closet: Negotiating spiritual expression in the workplace. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 17, 183-202. doi: 10.1108/02683940210423097.

Lloret, S., Ferreres, A., Hernández, A. y Tomás, I. (2014). El análisis factorial exploratorio de los ítems: Una guía práctica, revisada y actualizada. Anales de Psicología, 30(3), 1151- 1169.

Mayer, J. D., Caruso, D. R y Salovey, P. (2016). The Ability Model of Emotional Intelligence: Principles and Updates. Emotion Review, 8(4), 290–300. doi: 10.1177/1754073916639667.

Mayer, J.D., Roberts, R.D., y Barsade, S.G. (2008). Human abilities: Emotional intelligence. Annual Review of Psychology, 59, 507-536.

Mayer, J.D., Salovey, P y Woolery, A. (2001). Emotional intelligence: Conceptualization and measurement. In G. J. O. Fletcher & M. S. Clark (Eds.), Blackwell handbook of social psychology: Interpersonal processes (pp. 279-307). Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Mills, L. (2005). Windows, Mirrors and Doors. Ways In To Creating A School Policy For Spiritual Development, Re Today, 22(3), 10-11. Recuperado de http://web.ics.purdue.edu/~pjarvis/ENG_beyondSecular.pdf.

Myers, D.G., y Diener, E. (1995). Who is happy? Psychological Science, 6(1), 10-19.

Oviedo, H. C. y Campo-Arias, A. (2005). Aproximación al uso del coeficiente alfa de Cronbach. Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría, 34(4), 572-580.

Park, C. L., & Paloutzian, R. F. (2013). Directions for the future of the psychology of religion and spirituality: Research advances in methodology and meaning systems. In R. F. Paloutzian & C. L. Park (Eds.), Handbook of the psychology of religion and spirituality, pp. 651-665. New York, NY, US: Guilford Press.

Parsian, N. y Dunning, T. (2009). Spirituality and coping in young adults with diabetes: a cross‐sectional study. European diabetes nursing, 6(3), 100-104.

Peterson, C y Seligman, M. (2004). Character Strengths and Virtues. A handbook and classification, 11(4), 599-622.

Pineda, C. (2012). Inteligencia emocional y bienestar personal en estudiantes universitarios de Ciencias de la Salud. Tesis Doctoral: Universidad de Málaga.

Pita, S y Pértega, S. (2001). Significancia estadística y relevancia clínica. Cadernos de Atención Primaria, 8, 191-195. Recuperado de: https://www.fisterra.com/mbe/investiga/signi_estadi/signi_estadi.asp

Proyecto Amares (2006). Salud mental comunitaria en el Perú. Recuperado de http://www.minsa.gob.pe/dgsp/archivo/salud_mental_documentos/08_Salud_Mental_Co munitaria_Per%C3%BA.pdf.

Quiceno, J.M. y Vinaccia, S. (2009). La Salud en el marco de la Psicología de la Religión y la Espiritualidad. DIVERSITAS: Perspectivas en psicología, 5(2), 321- 336.

Rendón, M. I. (2007). Regulación emocional y competencia social en la infancia. Diversitas, 3, 349-363. doi: 10.15332/ s1794-9998.2007.0002.13.

Salovey, P., Mayer, J. D., Goldman, S. L., Turvey, C., y Palfai, T. P. (1995). Emotional attention, clarity, and repair: Exploring emotional intelligence using the Trait Meta- Mood Scale. In J. W. Pennebaker (Ed.), Emotion, disclosure, & health (pp. 125-154). doi: 10.1037/10182-006

Salovey, P., y Mayer, J. D. (1990). Emotional Intelligence. Imagination, Cognition, and Personality, 9, 185-211.

Scheindlin, R.P. (2003). História Ilustrada do Povo Judeu. Rio de Janeiro, Ediouro, 397 p. Siegel, D. The Developing Mind. 1999. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Steinskog, D.J., Tjøstheim, D.B., y Kvamstø, N.G. (2007). A Cautionary Note on the Use of the Kolmogorov–Smirnov Test for Normality. Monthly Weather Review, American Meteorological Society, 135(3): 1151-1157.

Suan Chin, S., Raman, K., Yeow, J y Eze, U. (2014). The Contributing Roles of Emotional Intelligence and Spiritual Intelligence in Entrepreneurial Innovation and Creativity. World Journal of Management, 5(2), 66-77.

Tabachnick, B. & Fidell, L. (2001). Using multivariate statistics. Needham Heights: Allyn & Bacon.

Tischler, L., Biberman, J. & McKeage, R. (2002). Linking emotional intelligence, spirituality and workplace performance. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 17 (3), 203-218.

Ugarriza, N. (2001). La evaluación de la inteligencia emocional a través del inventario de BarOn (I-CE ) en una muestra de Lima Metropolitana. Persona, 4, 129–160.

Willard, A., & Norenzayan, A. (2017). “Spiritual but not religious”: cognition, schizotypy, and conversion in alternative beliefs. Cognition, 165, 137–146. doi: 10.1016/j.cognition.2017.05.01

Woods, G. (2007). The bigger feeling: The importance of spiritual experience in educational leadership. Educational Management Administration Leadership, 35(1), 135-155. doi: 10.1177/1741143207071390

How to Cite
Miguel-Rojas, J., Vílchez-Quevedo, E., & Reyes-Bossio, M. (2018). Spirituality and Emotional Intelligence in university students of the city of Ayacucho. Interacciones, 4(2), 131-141. https://doi.org/10.24016/2018.v4n2.104
Original paper