The decision of becoming a mother: Why some girls in foster group homes become adolescent mothers and others don’t?
The aim of this research is to analyze which factors can explain why some girls in foster group homes become adolescent mothers and others do not, exploring the contraception use, life and motherhood expectations and their family models. The study also analyzes how teen mothers in foster group homes experience motherhood and analyze the experience of becoming mothers in their lives while in care. A total of 36 girls from foster group homes (18 mothers and 18 non-mother girls) were interviewed. The results show that the need to fill their emotional emptiness, their lack of professional life expectations, their unrealistic expectations about parenthood and the role of their partner, and the undervalue of the conditions necessary to raise their children are the main factors involved. Most of the girls in the mother group were teen mothers who were sent to foster homes because of their premature motherhood. This shows that the educative work done by caseworkers can help girls to be more conscious about getting the suitable conditions before becoming mothers. The role of foster parents, social educators, social workers and mentoring programs with the purpose to empower mothers to prevent children neglect is discussed.
Aparicio, E., Pecukonis, E.V., & O’Nale, S. (2015). “The love that I was missing”: Exploring the lived experience of motherhood among teen mothers in foster care. Children and Youth Services Review, 51, 44-54. doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2015.02.002.
Barn, R., & Mantovani, N. (2007). Young mothers and the care system: Contextualizing risk and vulnerability. British Journal of Social Work, 37, 225-43. doi: 10.1093/bjsw/bcl002.
Bartlett, J.D., Raskin, M., Kotake, C., Nearing, K.D. & Easterbrooks, M.A. (2014). An ecological analysis of infant neglect by adolescent mothers. Child Abuse & Neglect, 38, 723–734. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2013.11.011.
Boonstra, H. (2011). Teen Pregnancy Among Young Women In Foster Care: A Primer. Policy Review, 14(2), 8-19.
Budd, K.S., Holdsworth, M.J.A., & HoganBruen, K.D. (2006). Antecedents and concomitants of parenting stress in adolescent mothers in foster care. Child Abuse & Neglect, 30, 557–574. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2005.11.006.
Carpenter, S.C., Clyman, R.B., Davidson, A.J., & Steiner, J.F. (2001). The association of foster care or kinship care with adolescent sexual behavior and first pregnancy. Pediatrics, 108(3), e46. doi: 10.1542/peds.108.3.e46.
Chase, E., Maxwell, C., Knight, A. & Aggleton, P. (2006). Pregnancy and parenthood among young people in and leaving care: What are the influencing factors, and what makes a difference in providing support? Journal of Adolescence, 29(3), 437-451. doi:10.1016/j.adolescence.2006.01.003.
Connolly, J., Heifetz, M., & Bhor, Y. (2012). Pregnancy and Motherhood Among Adolescent Girls in Child Protective Services: A Meta-Synthesis of Qualitative Research. Journal of Public Child Welfare, 6(5), 614-635. doi: 10.1080/15548732.2012.72397.
Courtney, M., & Dworsky, A. (2005). Midwest evaluation of the adult functioning of former foster youth: Outcomes at age 19. Retrieved February 3, 2014 from Chapin Hall Center for Children at the University of Chicago web site: http://www.chapinhall.org/.
Courtney, M., Dworsky, A., & Pollack, H. (2007). When Should the State Cease Parenting? Evidence from the Midwest Study. Retrieved April 3, 2014 from Chapin Hall Center for Children at the University of Chicago web site: http://www.chapinhall.org/.
Courtney, M., Dworsky, A., Lee, J.S., & Raap, M. (2010) Midwest evaluation of the adult functioning of former foster youth: Outcomes at ages 23 and 24. Retrieved February 3, 2014 from Chapin Hall Center for Childrenat the University of Chicago web site: http://www.chapinhall.org/.
Courtney, M., Dworsky, A., Ruth, G., Keller, T., Havlicek, J., & Bost, N. (2005). Midwest evaluation of the adult functioning of former foster youth: Outcomes at age 19. Retrieved April 3, 2014 from Chapin Hall Center for Childrenat the University of Chicago web site: http://www.chapinhall.org/.
Cyr, C., Euser, E.M., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J., & van Ijzendoorn, M.H. (2010). Attach- ment security and disorganization in maltreating and high-risk families: A series of meta-analyses. Development and Psychopathology, 22, 87–108. doi: 10. 1017/S0954579409990289.
Delgado, M., Zamora F., Barrios Álvarez, L., & Cámara Izquierdo, N. (2011). Pautas anticonceptivas y maternidad adolescente en España. Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas.
Dworsky, A., & Courtney, M. (2010). The risk of teenage pregnancy among tranistioning foster youth : Implications for extending state care beyond age 18. Children and Youth Services Review, 32(10), 1351-1356. doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2010.06.002
Haight, W., Finet, D., Bamba, S., & Helton, J. (2009). The beliefs of resilient African- American adolescent mothers transitioning from foster care to independent living: A case-based analysis. Children and Youth Services Review, 31, 53–62. http://dx.doi. org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2008.05.009.
Hobcraft, J., & Kiernan, K. (2001). Childhood Poverty, Early Motherhood and Adult Social Exclusion. British Journal of Sociology, 52(3), 495–517. doi: 10.1080/00071310120071151.
Instituto Nacional de Estadística. (2013). Encuesta de fecundidad. Madrid: Instituto Nacional de Estadística.
James, S., Montgomery, S. B., Leslie, L. K., & Zhang, J. (2009). Sexual risk behaviors among youth in the child welfare system. Children and Youth Services Review, 31, 990–1000. doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2009.04.014.
King, B., Putnam-Hornstein, E., Cederbaum, J.A., Needell, B. (2014). A cross-sectional examination of birth rates among adolescent girls in foster care. Children and Youth Services Review, 36, 179–186. doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2013.11.007.
Knight, A., Chase, E., & Aggleton, P. (2006). Teenage pregnancy among young people in and leaving care: Messages and implications for foster care. Adoption & Fostering, 30(1), 58–69. doi: 10.1177/030857590603000108.
Love, L., McIntosh, J.,Rosst, M., & Tertzakian, K. (2005). Fostering hope: Preventing teen pregnancy among youth in foster care. Washington: National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy.
Mateos, A., Balsells, A., Molina, M.A., Fuentes-Peláez, N., Pastor, C. & Amorós, P. (2014). Necesidades educativas para promover la salud afectiva y sexual en jóvenes en riesgo social. Reire 7(2), 14-27.
Mendes, P. (2009). Improving outcomes for teenage pregnancy and early parenthood for young people in out-of-home care: A review of the literature. Youth Studies Australia, 28(4), 11-18.
Molina, M.A., Amorós, P., Balsells, M.A., Jané, M., Vidal, M.J. & Díez, E. (2013). Sexual health promotion in high social risk adolescents: The view of ‘professionals’. Revista de cercetare, 41, 144-162.
Montserrat, C.; Casas, F. & Sisteró, C. (2016). Estudi sobre l’atenció als joves extutelats: 21 Evolució, valoració i reptes de futur. Barcelona: Departament de Benestar i Familia.
Navarro, D., Montserrat, C., Malo, S., González, M., Casas, F. & Crous, G. (2015). Subjective well-being, what do adolescents say? Child & Family Social Work. doi: 10.1111/cfs.12215
Oriol, X., Sala-Roca, J., & Filella, G. (2014). Emotional competences of adolescents in residential care: Analysis of emotional difficulties for intervention. Children and Youth Services Review, 44, 334-340. doi: 10.1080/13691457.2014.892475.
Pecora, P., Williams, J., Kessler, R., Downs, A., O’Brien, K.,Hiripi, E., & Morello, S. (2003). Assessing the effects of foster care: Early results from the Casey National Alumni Study. Seattle: Casey Family Programs.
Peregrino, A. (2014). Anàlisi del sistema de protecció dels infants i adolescents a la província de Lleida entre els anys 1990 i 2000. Tesi Doctoral. Barcelona: Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona.
Pryce, J., & Samuels, G. (2010). Renewal and risk: The dual experience of motherhood and aging out of the child welfare system. Journal of Adolescent Research, 25(2), 205–230. doi: 10.1177/0743558409350500.
Putnam-Hornstein, E. & King, B. (2014). Cumulative teen birth rates among girls in foster care at age 17: An analysis of linked birth and child protection records from California. Child Abuse & Neglect, 38, 698–705. doi: 10.1016/j.chiabu.2013.10.021.
Svoboda, D., Shaw, T., Barth, R., & Bright, C. (2012). Pregnancy and parenting among youth in foster care: A review. Children and Youth Services Review, 34, 867–875. doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2012.01.023.
WHO (2012). Adolescent pregnancy. Geneva: WHO.
Zárate, N.; Arnau-Sabatés, L. & Sala-Roca, J. (2017). Factors influencing perceptions of teenage motherhood among girls in residential care. European Journal of Social Work. doi: 10.1080/13691457.2017.1292397
Copyright (c) 2018 Interacciones
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The authors retain the copyright and give the journal the right of the first publication and that they can edit it, reproduce it, distribute it, exhibit it and communicate it in the country and abroad through printed and digital media.
The digital version of the journal is registered under a Creative Commons license (Under Creative Commons License): Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0). Therefore, this work can be reproduced, distributed and publicly communicated in digital format, provided that the names of the authors and Interacciones.
Therefore, it is established that authors can make other independent and additional behavioural agreements for the non-exclusive distribution of the version of the article published in this journal (eg, include it in institutional repositories or publish it in a book) as long as it is clearly indicated that the work was published for the first time in this journal.